In 1973, Clifford Geertz- an American anthropologist- authored The Interpretation of Cultures, in which he defines culture as a context that behaviors and processes can be described from. His work, particularly this one, has come to be fundamental in the anthropological field, especially for symbolic anthropology-study of the role of symbols in a society- and an understanding of “thick description”-human behavior described such that it has meaning to an outsider of the community it originated. Alice Goffman is an American sociologist and ethnographer widely-known for her work, On the Run: Fugitive Life in an American City (2015). In this work, she relays how for her undergraduate and doctoral research project, she immersed herself in a predominately African-American community of Philadelphia as a white, privileged woman. Goffman goes on the explain how the frequent policing and incarceration of young, black men from this neighborhood affects the entire community and even affected Goffman herself.
Before the term globalization was popularized, Guy Debord was arguing about issues such as class alienation culture homogenization and mass media. When Debord says that all that was directly lived has become a mere representation, he refers to central importance of the image in contemporary society. The spectacle is not a collection of images rather it is a social relationship between people that is mediated by images. The monotheistic religions were comprised between myth and history, these religions rise from the soil of history and established themselves there. But they still preserve themselves to radical history.
Vol. 4(8), pp. 398-403, October, 2013 DOI: 10.5897/IJEL2013.0479 ISSN 2141-2626 ©2013 Academic Journals http://www.academicjournals.org/IJEL International Journal of English and Literature Full Length Research Paper Aesthetics in William Shakespeare's Sonnets Maryam Ebrahimi* and Bahman Zarrinjooee Department of English Literature and Language, Islamic Azad University of Boroujerd, Iran. Accepted 30 August, 2013 This study focuses on aesthetics in William Shakespeare's sonnets.
The social imagination is a basic skill that enables people to understand the larger historical scene. C. Wright Mills introduces this idea in his book titled The Sociological Imagination from Charles Lemert’s edition. Mill’s argues that the first impression of imagination, embodies the idea of understanding for individuals, he then counters that same argument by saying that, ‘human nature[is] frightening broad’ (Pp 267).
Structuralism and Semiotics Structuralism & semiotics, the general study of signs which developed from the structuralist program, have a complex theory of the way signs work but, in essence, we may say that the categories of meaning (words) are comprised in a system of binary oppositions: white & black, body & mind, the sacred & the profane, individual & collectivity. We are engaged, then, in the study of signs & sign systems. Structuralism analyzes society & elements of society via binary oppositions that it sees as essential to the way the brain works. Post structuralism, on the other hand, sees this binary dualism as an aspect of Western thought & not universal. For postmodernism, meaning & the categories of thought are shifting & unstable.
That was me. That was the author of this book”. Vonnegut begins his novel with himself as the narrator, keeping the promise he gave to Mary. Vonnegut’s own appearance in his novel also allows for its metafictional attributes, meaning that the novel draws attention to its own structure and telling. Harold Bloom in his book Bloom’s Modern Critical Interpretations on Kurt Vonnegut’s
LASALLE College of the Arts presents a modern adapation of William Shakespeare’s double bill. The Taming of the Shrew was directed by Stefanos Rassios and Macbeth was directed by Adam Marple. The Taming of the Shrew featured Level 2 BA (Hons) Musical Theatre students and Macbeth featured Level 2 BA (Hons) Acting students, in collaboration with the students from Diploma in Technical and Production Management.
(Rabinow,1991,p.8). Foucault presented his themes of work through three mode of objectification of the subject. They are:-The first mode of objectification is called as 'Dividing practices '. He observed the systematic social or cultural categorisation of different classes thus objectifying the subject either by a process of division within himself or from the rest of the society.
In the “Tales of the Alhambra” Washington Irving called him as a “son of the Alhambra” [2, p. 22]. Mateo being aware of the details about the historical truths, customs and traditions of the Alhambra and its inhabitants encouraged Irving to compose the unexampled work including a series of verbal sketches, stories and essays. The tales with the reflection of real historical truths are centralized in this book. The ruins reflect the traces of the periodical invasions of people with different faiths as well as the traces of natural calamity including
“We are seeking to define what is distinctly theatre, what separates this activity from other categories of performance and spectacle… our productions are detailed investigations of the actor-audience relationship.” Jerzy Grotowski Jerzy Grotowski (1933-1999) was a Polish innovative theatre director and theorist who has been a significant influence to theatre today. He was a significant innovator in the development of experimental, avant-garde theatre. Grotowski demands that theatre must actively seek out how it’s different from other forms of performance, such as television and film. He was influenced strongly by the work of other theatre director’s such as Constantin Stanislavski, Bertolt Brecht and Vsevolod Meyerhold.
The state of nature serves as a portrayal of the human being prior to the contemporary state or society, being utilized by social contract theorists to present their understanding of both human nature and the development of government. John Locke and Thomas Hobbes, two iconic seventeenth-century writers, are among many to have submitted versions of such conditions in their works, Two Treatises of Government, and Leviathan. Although there may appear to be points of similarity, their differing accounts of pre-societal man is largely responsible for their contrasting stances on the emergence of the modern state and its sources of legitimate power. Each writer provides a separate lens through which readers can investigate their understandings of
What is a symbol? In literature a symbol is an object, person, place or an idea that has a real meaning in itself and also a deeper and profound meaning . Many examples of symbols can be found in the novel “The Great Gatsby” by F. Scott Fitzgerald. The story of the book takes place in the roaring 1920’s and within the story Fitzgerald uses a lot of symbols as objects and physical location. The physical locations such as valley of ashes, Gatsby’s mansion , Nick’s house , the green light located in the Buchanan residents’ dock are not only places or locations that the author mentions, they symbolize emotions, feelings and other significant information.
Symbolism is a standout amongst the most vital scholarly terms utilized frequently by numerous authors to pass on their focal thought. As indicated by the Longman Contemporary Dictionary, Symbolism can be characterized as a gadget that brings out more than an exacting importance from a man, question, picture or word. Symbolism plays a big factor in this story. The significance of Mrs. Moore trip with the kids to FAO Schwartz is caught in Bambara's utilization of Symbolism. The youngsters took a gander at various elite toys outside the store.
Symbolism is a way to present ideas or aspects through symbols. Symbols are often used to give a symbolic meaning to ideas. Typically, an object is used to represent a deeper and powerful meaning. Through symbolism, the reader has an opportunity to get an insight of the writer’s mind. This provokes a hidden interpretation that is more influential than the literal definition.
Symbolism is used in literature pieces to add dimension and depth to the story that is being told. The symbols that are used are usually subtle and discreet but are mentioned or talked about quite often. This is because in literature if something is mentioned more than once then it will most likely hold a greater significance than it may lead on. The author John Steinbeck uses many symbols in the story Of Mice and Men to add a better understanding on why some characters act the way they do. The way he adds symbolism to this story is through the animals that live with the characters or are talked about frequently.