Humayun And His Father's Conquest Of The Mughal Empire

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Preface: From 1540-1553 Humayun was in exile after his empire was conquered by the Surs in Sind and Rajasthan. After forming an army in 1553 he reoccupied Kabul . From Kabul Humayun tried to duplicate his father’s conquest of northern India. In late 1554, Humayun led his army from Kabul back to the northern Indian plain where he met very little resistance from Sur rulers except for Punjab. Sikandar Shah Sur ruler of Punjab fought a hard battle and lost in the hands of the mighty Mughal armies. Humayun completed restoration of his kingdom by mid-1555. Humayun passed away in 1556. AKBAR 1556-1605 At the age of 12, Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar was crowned as the heir to Mughal Empire. Bairam Khan, a member of Humayun’s nobility acted as protector for young Akbar. Bairam Khan fought many battles and conquered many kingdoms and extended the Mughal Empire and took complete control of important cities like Lahore, Delhi, Agra, Jaunpur, Multan, Malwa etc. After four years Akbar turned seventeen and chafed in rebellion against Bairam Khan’s stern authority which was supported by the nobility due to religious differences. In 1560 Akbar demanded Bairam Khan’s resignation as chief minister. After Bairam Khan, Akbar’s foster brother Adham Khan and Shihab-ud-din, a cousin exercised almost all political and fiscal powers for two years. Due to differences between ideologies of Akbar and Adham Khan, the former relieved Adham Khan of all powers. In late 1561 the Akbar’s conflict with Adham

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