Hunger And Satiation Research Paper

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11. Explain how certain amounts and types of food can affect hunger and satiation. (max. 2 marks) The type of macronutrient a person consumes affects hunger and satiation, for instance, proteins have the strongest effects of satiation compared to carbohydrates and fats. Also, solid products that are rich in water and fibre have greater satiety values rather than those that don’t contain these characteristics. 12. Explain how digestion begins in the mouth. (max. 2 marks) The first mechanical and chemical digestion processes occur in the mouth. Mechanical digestion occurs by chewing food while chemical digestion occurs due to the release of the enzyme amylase. Particularly, amylase is secreted by the salivary glands in the mouth and it is…show more content…
For instance, enteric nerves recognizes how full the digestive tract is by determining how far it has extended. This message is then passed onto the brain which sends out a message to halt eating. These nerves also recognize when a person consumes fat or protein containing foods and the central nervous system reacts to this by signaling specific organs to release substances for assisting the breakdown of fat and protein macronutrients. 14. What is irritable bowel syndrome and what are some of the symptoms? (max. 2 marks) Irritable bowel syndrome is a health problem that affects the large intestine. Some symptoms that are associated with this syndrome are constipation, diarrhea, bloating and abdominal cramps. 15. What is inflammatory bowel disease? (max. 2 marks) Inflammatory bowel disease involves two diseases which are Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. This disease causes an inflammation in the digestive tract, particularly in the small and large intestine. Crohn’s disease usually targets the small intestine which can negatively affect its ability to absorb nutrients by altering the normal functions of the microvilli. In the other hand, ulcerative colitis primarily causes inflammation in the large intestine and thereby resulting in poor water…show more content…
17. In celiac disease, what type of damage is seen in the small intestine? (max. 1 mark) In celiac disease, particularly the microvilli found in the small intestine are affected. This is because the immune system negatively reacts to the presence of gluten by inflaming the lining of the small intestine. This inflammation damages the microvilli which interferes with the small intestine’s absorption activities. 18. Explain what polysaccharides are and provide an example of a polysaccharide. (max. 2 marks) A polysaccharide is a carbohydrate that consist of numerous sugar units, particularly ten or more sugar units. A few examples of polysaccharides include glycogen and starch. 19. Describe 3 potential health benefits of fibre consumption. (max. 3 marks) Fibre consumption is very beneficial for diabetic individuals since fibre aids in controlling blood glucose levels by promoting insulin production. Also, it is because of this reason as to why reduced risk of type 2 diabetes is associated with fibre consumption. Fibre also have positive effects on bowel movements by softening and solidifying stools which lowers the risk of certain health problems such as constipation and hemorrhoids. Lastly, it also promotes a healthy heart by lowering the levels of harmful cholesterol (low-density

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