The second view believes that culture is important to understand the context in which the behaviour is happening, however there are cross culture similarities as well as universalities in the experience as well as the outcome of psychological disorders. In an attempt to solve this conflict, there have been a number of researches conducted over the years by psychologies to study the interaction between culture and psycho pathology. The latest attempt to understand psychopathology in relation to the cultural context is the DSM – V which defines a mental disorder as- "A mental disorder is a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behaviour that reflects a dysfunction in the psychological, biological, or developmental processes underlying
For instance, it is seen as abnormal for a first-time mother to be over the age of 40 or under the age of 20. Another way we can define abnormality is as deviation from social norms. Social norms are created by a society and are standards of acceptable behaviour. People in that society who go against these norms are classed as abnormal. For example, one social norm of a society may be politeness, and if people are rude,
Sociological Perspectives Sexuality has three assumptions to it 1. Sexuality of members 2. Institutions of society such as family, religion, 3. What is appropriateness or inappropriateness of sexual behavior with in the cultural it occurs in. Society and culture shapes human sexuality that is what is interesting to sociologists.
Desiree Stokely PAC240 Module 2 October 5, 2015 Multiculturalism is a widely-known issue in addiction counseling and has a vital role in counseling. “Culture is the combination of all the physical and behavioral aspects of a society. To study the people within a society, how they function and what they value, Culture should be regarded as the set of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features of a society or a social group, that it encompasses, in addition to art and literature, lifestyles, ways of living together, value systems,, traditions and beliefs.” Pg 18 Counselors have a challenging time counseling culturally diverse clients, exclusively when they are unwary of
Ethnic stereotypes operate in the same ways for men and women. In the reading “ Being WEIRD: How Culture Shapes the Mind,” Ethan Watters mentions how culture shapes the way of thinking and perception. “The most interesting thing about cultures…they mold out most fundamental conscious and unconscious thinking and perception.”(Watters 496). This shows how culture is not just about the materialistic things, but how it influence’s ones thinking and judgment in general. A main source that influences an individuals judgement is the media.
However, a certain level of generalization is valid to the extent that it provides clues of what the person most likely encounter. In conclusion, when it comes to culturally sensitive care, what's proper and correct in one culture may be ineffective or unacceptable in another. In reality, no culture is right or wrong, better or worse—just different. For healthcare workers, there is no single receipt for communication. The best approach is the development of an understanding of, and a deep respect for, the
Another distinction which has had a strong impact on the study of culture is the understanding of culture as practice or culture as a system of symbols and meanings. As Hall stresses, culture is about meaning and as such “permeates all of society.” Representations, practices, values and identities have cultural meanings that are discursively constructed and tap into previous cultural discourses to be meaningful. Critical intercultural communication casts light on ways in which meanings echo cultural knowledge and are therefore difficult to identify and question – even for researchers themselves, hence a strong emphasis placed on reflexivity. The importance of “cultural resonance” has also been pointed out by scholars examining media
Furthermore Albert Bandura “ Social Learning Theory the social learning theory of emphasizes the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others. Bandura (1977) states: "Learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do. Fortunately, most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action. Social learning theory explains human behavior in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioral, an environmental influences. Some of the important process and variables that Bandura use to understand personality is the Observational Learning that he believe that this is a key aspect of how we learn.
Normal should not be a term that determines whether a person is treated a certain way or allowed to do certain deeds. Being normal does not mean you are better than others because nowadays everyone wants to be the opposite of normal. They want to stand out and be the one who has a unique quality. People should not fall under a range; there is nothing wrong with being different and if one wants to use the term abnormal to describe that then it should be taken as a compliment not an insult. The next time you feel abnormal or like you do not fit in, remember to be yourself instead of being forced into a box like everyone
Generally the word normality indicates that everything is functioning properly and in good state and hence psychological normality represents good psychological or mental state. But it is another fact that defining what is normal and abnormal is difficult as they are abstract concepts. Upon analysis we can see that the society, which is a collection of different individuals, has set certain norms, practices and behaviors as normal. All those who conform to those behaviors are considered as normal and all those who cross those boundaries are treated as abnormal. Studies by Wood et al (2007) suggest that evaluations on normality indicate positive relations with features like “agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, well-being and