70% of CP cases have spastic cerebral palsy which is the most common type and is caused by damage to the brain’s motor cortex. Spastic cerebral palsy can affect either one side of the body, commonly known as spastic hemiplegia, or both sides of the body. Spastic diplegia causes stiffness mostly in the legs, the arms may be affected, but not as severely. (Spastic Cerebral Palsy.., n.d, p.1) Both of these types involves stiff movements that are exaggerated, caused by increased muscle tone. It causes difficulty preforming tasks such as getting dressed, walking and handling objects.
Diabetic retinopathy can progress to this more severe type, known as proliferative diabetic retinopathy. In this type, damaged blood vessels close off, causing the growth of new, abnormal blood vessels in the retina, and can leak into the clear, jelly-like substance that fills the center of your eye (vitreous). Signs and Symptoms At first, diabetic retinopathy may cause no symptoms or only mild vision problems. Eventually, it can cause
The same mind-body power that can heal you, can also harm you; this is where the Nocebo effect takes place. The basis behind these two events is called the “meaning response” and it alludes to the brain’s power to lead to effects in reaction to whatever it considers the truth or, positive or negative. If the substance is seen as beneficial it can heal, but if it’s considered as damaging, it is more likely to produce negative effects. For example, when patients in double-blinded clinical tests are warned about the side effects they may encounter if they’re given the real drug, approximately 25% experience sometimes severe reactions, even when they’re only taking a placebo, such as sugar pills. Some of these symptoms include weakness, puking, lack of muscular strength, colds, ringing in the ears, confusion with their taste recognition, memory loss or disorder, and other symptoms that should not result from these fake medications.
Phantom limb syndrome is a neurological disorder that affects amputees and is characterized by phantom sensations that appear to emanate from the missing limb (Rugnetta). The phantom sensations can be painful or nonpainful in nature, so that the individual experiences pain, touch sensations, or changes in temperature (Rugnetta), despite missing the peripheral portions of the spinothalamic pathway and other pathways involved in relaying information to associated regions of the brain, and in particular to the somatosensory cortex. The mechanisms involved in phantom limb syndrome are not fully understood. However, it has been noted that following amputation there is a rewiring of parts of the brain associated with sensation (Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, Hall, LaMantia, & White, 2012), including, “considerable reorganization
Myelin damage disrupts communication between your brain and the rest of your body. Ultimately, the nerves themselves may deteriorate a process that's currently irreversible.” – (Unkown. (2014). Multiple Sclerosis. Available: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/multiple-sclerosis/basics/definition/con-20026689.
Anaesthetic Management of a patient with Parkinsonism Posted for Wide Excision of Skin Adenexal Tumour in the Axilla: A Case Report Introduction Parkinsons disease has been known since biblical times but it was first formally described by James Parkinson in the 18th century and termed “the shaking palsy”. Although the aetiology of the disease is unknown, age has been identified as the most consistent risk factor. Parkinsons disease affects approximately 3% of the population over 66 years of age and with increasing age of the general surgical patients it is becoming an important cause of perioperative morbidity Parkinsonism is due to the imbalance of the mutually antagonistic dopaminergic and cholinergic systems of the basal ganglia. Pigmented
What is it Lupus is a chronic systemic rheumatic disease, that is, can affect any organ and / or system : joints and muscles, can damage the skin, kidney, lung and almost all organs. One of the characteristics of this disease is a disease that is very heterogeneous. It is difficult to find two patients with the same symptoms and the same patterns of disease. That complicates often it is diagnosed. The evolution of the disease develops in stages and other outbreak in which the effects of the disease forwarded.
This ocular pathology is lacking in an exact defined cause, even though numerous cases are related to hormonal changes. Generally, the condition may be caused by: • Aging, because the secretion of tears decreases with age • Decrease in estrogen levels • Use of contact lenses • Eye surgeries • Prolonged exposure to the sunlight • Consumption of medicines for the cold • Exposure to air-conditioned environments • Cigarette smoke • Chronic diseases like Parkinson’s and also diabetes So how exactly does dry eye syndrome manifest itself? The signs and symptoms of dry eye syndrome vary between each patient, typically depending on the cause of it. Among its most typical clinical manifestations are: • Eye dryness • Sandy feeling in the eyes • Discomfort once blinking • Redness of the eyes • Itchy and itchy eye • Increased level of sensitivity to light • Blurred vision • A headache Natural remedies for dry eye syndrome To deal with the signs and symptoms of this disease, synthetic tears usually are prescribed, which can or might not contain preservatives. They are used 2 or 4 times a day, depending on the severity of the
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an amalgam of neurodevelopment disorders that are manifested as mild to severe deficiencies in social and communication interactions coupled with limited, repetitive and stereotypical behavioral patterns (American Psychiatric Association, 2012). This spectrum of disorders may occur independently or jointly in a patient. ASD being a behavior disorder requires a complex and comprehensive behavioral evaluation sometimes making it difficult to accurately
This can be related to the components of psychological model of normality. Insanity can be a product of the problems in unconscious state. The ego’s failure to keep the balance settling the conflicts between id and super ego may lead to insanity about which patient may not be aware of. Insanity can be a learned behavior by classical or operant conditioning, developed by the patient to gain attention. Insanity can develop as a result of abnormal thinking which can be treated effectively by changing the thinking process.
Specific Characteristics : Crohn’s most commonly affects the end of the small bowel and the beginning of the colon, but it may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the anus. Crohn’s disease can also affect the entire thickness of the bowel wall. The inflammation of the intestine can skip,leaving normal areas in the bowel between patches of diseased intestine. Causes: The cause of Crohn 's disease is unknown. However, it is likely due to an abnormal response of the immune system.
What is “normal?” How do we define and categorize someone under the “normal” standards when everyone is different? When discussing what is qualitatively and quantitatively different from “normal” we look at characteristics of what normal is and what is considered to be different from “normal” to place it into a category of either disabilities or health issues. Though these symptoms are considered to be qualitatively different from “normal”, they are also quantitatively different because these symptoms can also fit other categories besides a specific disorder. For example, when a person visits a doctor with five symptoms they are experiencing, those symptoms could be broken down from a list of one hundred of the same concern. The terms qualitative