17) The outcome was cataloged. 18) The left and the right beaker are emptied and cleaned to execute the next test. 19) 18 millimolar of Na⁺Cl⁻ was put inside of the left beaker. 20) Deionized Water was poured into the right beaker. 21) A sixty-minute timer was started to see how the 18 Na⁺Cl⁻ (mM) solvent diffuses through the 50 (MWCO) Dialysis Membrane.
Acetonitrile at a PH of 7 (neutral) is added to each of the test tube samples. Mix the samples on a vertex shaker for 3 minutes and transfer to a 20 ml centrifuge tube and place in a TurboVap under 5-psi nitrogen at room temperature and allow it to completely dry. The dry resides are now put in 1ml of acetonitrile for testing (analysis). 4. Chromatographic Condition 10ml of the extract is now taken to be analyzed using a mass spectrometer and a liquid chromatograph.
This diluted solution will be used in the assay as duplicate samples. Then, 1.0mL of standard glycine solution containing (7.5mg/mL) was diluted to 100mL with water using a volumetric flask. This solution contains 1.0µmole/mL of glycine. 8 tubes were set up according to the following protocol and 2.0mL of ninhydrin reagent was then added to each of the 8 tubes and were placed in a boiling water bath for 20 minutes. After 20 minutes, the tubes from the bath was carefully removed, cooled in a beaker of cold water, then 8.0mL of 50% ethanol was added and mixed well.
DMF was used as a solvent and AIBN (0.5% w/w of total monomer) as free radical initiator .The reaction was carried out at 70±2° C for 6 hour with constant stirring. After completion of the process it was cooled to room temperature and resultant polymer solution was poured in the large amount of methanol with stirring when polymer precipitated out. It was filtered and washed with methanol. The polymer was purified by repeated precipitation using methanol from solution in DMF and then it dried. 2.3 Preparation of PS
Then five millilitres of sample “A” were placed in the test tube labeled “A”. This was then repeated with the next three samples. Each sample was visually observed and the colour of each was recorded. Next 20 drops of Benedict’s solution were added to each test tube and the test tubes were lowered into a hot bath at a temperature of approximately 80 degrees Celsius. All colour changes were recorded.
Extraction of β-caryophyllene Ground cloves will be used to isolate β-caryophyllene via steam distillation. 5g of ground cloves will be taken in a 500mL RBF(Round bottom flask) with boiling stones, 40mL of dH2O, and 3 to 4 drops of an antifoaming agent (to prevent violent boiling). Then, the contents of the flask will be heated on a heating mantle for an hour and followed by condensation of the distillate through a water jacket. Then allow it to collect in a graduated cylinder. Steam distillation will allow the clove oil to co-distill with the water, which take place at a least temperature than the boiling temperature of the individual solutions.
The drop rate was adjusted to 1 to 2 drops/second. 10.0 mL of the NaOH solution was allowed to drip away into a waste beaker. The exact volume of the sodium hydroxide solution used was determined. A clean 250-mL beaker was taken and around 0.3 to 0.5 g of potassium acid phthalate was weighed into it. 50 mL of distilled water was approximately added to this 250 mL beaker and gently swirled so that the solid (potassium acid phthalate) got fully dissolved into the water.
We then added 10cm3 ethanoic anhydride to the salicylic acid and swirled the contents, this mixes together the two chemicals. We then added 5 drops of concentrated sulphuric acid to the flask and thoroughly swirled the mixture, this creates the solution that makes the aspirin. We then warmed the flask for 20 minutes in a 400cm3 beaker of hot water which was approximately 60°C, we made sure the flask did not go above 65°C because this could have caused the contents to evaporate. Part 2: Using a 25cm3 measuring cylinder we measured out 15cm3 of ethanol into a boiling tube and then prepared a beaker half filled with hot water at approx. 75°C, we got this temperature by filling the beaker with cold water and slowly adding boiling water from a kettle until we reached the right temperature.
A control extract is prepared (5ml of DAE) to a test tube, which is then placed in boiling waterbath for 10minutes, after 10minutes remove the control extract and leave it to cool at room temperature. In order to determine the amylase activity, one drop of iodine is dropped into 21 labelled wells on the ceramic test plates. A reaction mixture is prepared, 5ml of buffer and 1ml of 0.5% starch solution to a test tube. Extract one drop from the reaction mixture to the well labelled T. Turning blue-black indicating the presence of starch in the reaction mixture. Add 1 ml of diluted amylase extract to the reaction mixture.
If the color changes, then it is known that monosaccharides are present in the solution. Next, one will test for starches. Starch solution is then placed into the test tube at a quantity of 5 mL. 5 drops of Lugol’s Iodine solution is added to the test tube. If the color changes, then it is known that starches are present in the solution.
The dried roots of Inula racemosa were pulverized and sieved with 100 ~ 200 mesh. The herb powder was placed into a glass bottle. Ultrasound-assisted extraction was carried out in an ultrasonic cleaner RK102H (Bandelin sonorex, Germany). The powder of Inula racemosa was extracted three times under the following conditions: the ratio of material to solvent was 10:1, undergoing ultrasonic treatment 30 minutes at 25 °C, 100 kHz /450 W.31 Before large extraction, a small-scale extraction experiments were carried out: 95% ethanol and ethyl acetate as the extractive solutions was investigated, respectively. The extraction efficiency was evaluated according to the percent content of AL and IS contained in the dried roots of Inula racemosa and calculated