The purpose of this report is determine if sodium chloride is a viable option as a deicer on winter roads. To determine this, one must compare a multitude of factors. In this lab, the freezing point depression of water, enthalpy of dissolution, cost, and environmental impact will be discussed. A large factor in how effective a substance is as a deicer is it’s ability to decrease the freezing point of water. If the freezing point of water can be lowered, the outside temperature must be much colder to reach this new freezing point, resulting in less ice on the roads. These results a somewhat inaccurate due to the fact that when the solutions were actually freezing is difficult to tell. Some solutions froze slowly and showed a plateau, while others
The purpose of this experiment was to identify given Unknown White Compound by conducting various test and learning how to use lab techniques. Tests that are used during this experiment were a flame test, ion test, pH test, and conductivity test. The results drawn from these tests confirmed the identity of the Unknown White Compound to be sodium acetate (NaC2H3O2) because there were no presence of ions and sodium has a strong persistent orange color. The compound then will be synthesized with the compounds Na2CO3 and HC2H3O2 to find percent yield. Weighed 1 gram of NaC2H3O2 and mixed it with ionized water. Boiled 12 mL of 1.0M Acetic Acid added into a beaker containing the sodium carbonate on a hot plate until all the liquid is evaporated
The purpose of the experiment was to identify unknown compounds using knowledge on the concept of mole. The guiding question for this experiment is what are the identities of the unknown compounds? The numbers of moles and the identities of the compounds are the only given. To be able to identify the compounds the mass, molar mass and the number of moles will be needed. Molar mass is the quantity in grams of one mole of a substance. The molar mass is found by adding the number of grams of each element to find the total amount of grams per mole. For example CaH2 has the elements of Calcium which has the molar mass of (40.078g/mole) and two Hydrogen which is (2 x 1.0079 g/mol).When the mass of both elements are added the molar mass of CaH2 is 42.0938g/mol.Moles are really important because it allows chemist to be able to have a standardize meausment which gives them the chance to compare compounds.
In cycle one, the double displacement reaction, Cu(s) + 4HNO3(aq) → Cu(NO3)2(aq) + 2NO2(g) + 2H2O(l) occurred, the result of the reaction was that the reaction mixture began to bubble with the copper filling dissolving and a vapor like substance leaving the reaction. Furthermore, when water was added, the color change, from brown to a blue color pigment. Then in Cycle two, another double displacement reaction occurred, Cu(NO3)2(aq) + 2NaOH(aq) → Cu(OH)2(s) + 2NaNO3(aq), which resulted in the reaction becoming cloudy and a darker shade of blue. Following cycle two, a decomposition reaction occurred as the result of heat being administered to the mixture, thus the following reaction occurred in cycle three, Cu(OH)2(s) → CuO(s) + H2O(l). As a
The mystery powder (#5) is the baking powder. My partners and I figured this out because the physical and chemical properties of both of the substances are very similar. For example, both powders are not soluble in water, and they both turned red when they reacted with the universal indicator.
The purpose of this lab was to determine which of the following substances: wax, sugar, and salt, are an ionic compound and which are a covalent compound. In order to accurately digest the experiments results, research of definitions of each relating led to the following information: ionic compounds are positive and negatively charged ions that experience attraction to each other and pull together in a cluster of ionic bonds; they are the strongest compound, are separated in high temperatures, and can be separated by polar water molecules. A covalent compound forms when two or more nonmetal atoms share valence electrons; covalent compounds are also
The objectives of this experiment were to use knowledge of chemical formulas and chemical nomenclature to experimentally determine the empirical formula of copper chloride. Common laboratory techniques were used to conduct a reaction between copper chloride and solid aluminum in order to get rid of the water of hydration. The amount of water of hydration in the sample of copper chloride hydrate was calculated by measuring the mass before and after heating the sample. Afterwards, an oxidation-reduction reaction was conducted, resulting in elemental copper. Using the Law of Definite Proportions, the mass of this product was used to determine the number of moles of copper and chlorine in the sample, which led to being able to determine the
Background Information/Introduction: The aim of this lab is to determine the empirical formula of magnesium oxide by converting magnesium to magnesium oxide. As an alkali earth metal, magnesium reacts violently when heated with oxygen to produce magnesium oxide and magnesium nitride as a byproduct. In order to obtain only magnesium oxide, distilled water was added so that magnesium nitride will react and convert to magnesium hydroxide. Further heating then oxidizes all of the magnesium into magnesium oxide. After the reaction is finished, the percentage composition of each element in the product can be found and used to calculate the empirical formula, which is the lowest whole number ratio
Cell membranes are the semi-permeable membrane that surrounds all cells. It separates the extracellular environment from the intercellular environment. It is a phospholipid bilayer which contains various proteins, lipids and carbohydrates all serving different purposes. It is this structure which allows for the transport of nutrients, proteins and water. (Nature.com, 2014). Through extensive testing it has been found that small alcohols, specifically ethanol can increase the fluidity and membrane permeability of the phospholipid bilayer (Patra et al, 2005). The aim of the experiment was to test what effect that ethanol solution would have on the membrane
Introduction: In this lab, of water in a hydrate, or a substance whose crystalline structure is bound to water molecules by weak bonds, is determined by heating up a small sample of it. By heating, the water of hydration, or bound water, is removed, leaving only what is called an anhydrous compound. Based on the percent water in the hydrate, it can be classified as one of three types: BaCl2O ⋅ 2H20, with a percent water of about 14.57%, CuSO4 ⋅ 5H2O, which has about 36.0%, and CuCl2 ⋅5H20 (21.17%).