The goal of the experiment is to synthesize a bromohexane compound from 1-hexene and HBr(aq) under reflux conditions and use the silver nitrate and sodium iodide tests to determine if the product is a primary or secondary hydrocarbon. The heterogeneous reaction mixture contains 1-hexene, 48% HBr(aq), and tetrabutylammonium bromide and was heated to under reflux conditions. Heating under reflux means that the reaction mixture is heated at its boiling point so that the reaction can proceed at a faster rate. The attached reflux condenser allows volatile substances to return to the reaction flask so that no material is lost. Since alkenes are immiscible with concentrated HBr, tetrabutylammonium bromide is used as a phase-transfer catalyst.
The fastest pH was 6 (total:34.5), and it seems that there wasn’t a large change which resulted in a stable structure. The temperature in our experiment was not very high which didn’t result in denaturation of peroxidase. The temperature seemed to be a constant that didn’t affect the experiment. If the temperature was higher in pH 3 and low in pH 10, then it would cause pH 3 to denature even more which would make the pH 3 total about 4.0. Substrate concentration basically means the amount used for the substrate.
3. To purify and identify the product, recrystallization is used in order to purify the product, then melting point and TLC techniques are used to identify the product. Theory 4. In nucleophilic substitution reactions, there are two possibilities, either Sn1 or Sn2. In this particular experiment, an Sn2 reaction
Aim The purpose of this experiment was to use fractional distillation technique to separate cyclohexane and toluene. Background Information Distillation is a technique which is used for separating two or more volatile products based on differences in their boiling points. Distillation can be used to separate a volatile solvent from a non-volatile product and separate a volatile product from non-volatile impurities. Simple distillation consists of a round-bottom flask, a distilling head, a condenser, an adapter and a receiver which are used to separate compounds where one is considerably more volatile than the other compound. This distillation is performed in one step.
Dehydration of 2-Methylcyclohexanol Sura Abedali Wednesday 2:00 PM January 31, 2018 Introduction: Dehydration reactions are important processes to convert alcohols into alkenes. It is a type of elimination reaction that removes an “-OH” group from one carbon molecule and a hydrogen from a neighboring carbon, thus releasing them as a water molecule (H2O) and forming a pi bond between the two carbons1. In this experiment, 2-methylcyclohexanol undergoes dehydration to form three possible products: methylenecylcohexane, 1-methylcyclohexene, and 3-methylcyclohexene in a Hickman still apparatus. Adding 85% Phosphoric Acid to protonates the “-OH” group, turning it into a better leaving group and initiating the dehydration reaction. The dehydration of 2-methylcyclohexanol takes place at the bottom of the Hickman still.
Title : Determination of chemical formula of hydrate Aim To determine the chemical formula of hydrated Copper (II) sulphate, CuSO4 Research Background “When the chemical is heated the hydrate will convert to an anhydrous ionic compound (this means the water will leave it). The moles of H2O will be determined by assuming the amount of mass lost by heating is the mass of the evaporated H2O. The moles of the CuSO4 (the white substance after heating) can be calculated from the mass of the white crystals. Using the molar ratio of moles of CuSO4 to moles of H2O, one can determine the chemical formula of the hydrate.” Apparatus and materials Apparatus and Materials used Quantity Crucible and lid Tripod stand Clay triangle Wire gauze White tile
7- Once finished turn the Bunsen burner to a safety flame and turn off the gas Materials- precipitates test In this experiment you will need: -Test tubes -Test rack -Unknown solution A -Unknown solution B -Silver Nitrate -Safety goggles -Barium chloride Method- precipitates test The method to this experiment is: 1- Gather your materials 2- Put on your safety goggles 3- Get unknown solution A and pour centimeter into a test tube 4- Add a centimeter of silver nitrate into unknown solution A 5- Observe the reaction and record your notes 6- Pour a centimeter of unknown solution B into another test tube 7- Add a centimeter of silver nitrate into unknown solution B 8- Observe the reaction and record your notes 9- Do the same with barium chloride and observe the reaction 10- Pour out the contents in the test tubes and wash them out 11- Pack up your materials Results-Flame test Cation Flame Test A= Calcium Vibrant orange color with a hint of yellow Calcium B=Copper Forest green color with a hint of orange Copper Results- Precipitate Test- Anion Halide Test (Silver Nitrate) Sulfate Test (Barium Chloride) Unknown A Turned cloud white color, has a quick reaction, sediment on the top Clear solution with a white stringy bits floating
Enthalpy of neutralization The purpose of this experiment is to determine the enthalpy change for the reaction between aqueous sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and aqueous hydrochloric acid (HCl). Introduction A neutralization reaction is a chemical reaction where a base and an acid react with each other. The products will always be water and a salt. The balanced reaction equation for this experiment is the reaction below (Enthalpy of neutralization, 2018). 〖NaOH〗_((aq))+〖HCl〗_((aq))→〖NaCl〗_((aq))+H_2 O_((l)) In aqueous solutions the substances that are involved will experience dissociation, which changes the ionization state of the substances (Neutralization, 2018).
Afterward, filter this solution to obtain the calcium carbonate. Finally, heat the calcium carbonate at 248 degrees Fahrenheit to dry it out. Heat the calcium carbonate to 1,832 degrees Fahrenheit to get CaO. The following equation shows this reaction: CaCO3 -> CaO + CO2. Store the lime into a closed container and add aluminum.
A hydrate is a compound, where water molecules are chemically bounded to another compound or element. An anhydrate is the substance remaining after removing water from a hydrate. The hydrate in this lab was Copper Sulfate. The hydrates formula is CuSO4 times xH2O. The purpose of this lab was to pull the water from a hydrate to expose the anhydrate and calculate what the hydrate is by finding the formula for the
This is called a hydrate because the substance is hydrated. The chemical state of the water varies widely between different classes of hydrates, some of which were so labeled before their chemical structure was understood. 2: Specific to your hydrate. What are common uses of your hydrate? Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate, or MgSO4
Once hydrogen and the baking soda ions bump into each other, they form carbonic acid (H2CO3). Carbonic acid decays to form carbon dioxide and water. The formation of the carbon dioxide causes the fizzing action seen in the experiment. It is shown in the equation: H+ (aq) + HCO3 - (aq)
Purpose The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the stoichiometric relationship between the testing agents and to identify the products formed. The relationship was found by completing three acid and base neutralization reactions using phosphoric acid, which is a triprotic acid, with different volumes of sodium hydroxide. Introduction Procedure Phosphoric acid solution with a volume of 1.00 mL and a molarity of 6.00 M was transferred into a 125-mL Erlenmeyer flask using a volumetric pipette. Sodium hydroxide solution with a volume of 6.00 mL and a molarity of 3.00 M was transferred into a 50 mL beaker using a volumetric pipette. While swirling the phosphoric acid solution in the Erlenmeyer flask, the sodium hydroxide solution was added to it a few drops at a time using a disposable plastic pipette.