The nucleophile in the reaction is salicylic acid and it was form when oxygen on the phenol group attacked the partial positive charge of a carbon from acetic anhydride. Next, the salicylic acid will attack the positively charged anhydride. The oxygen from the phenol group will now be positively charge while the carbonyl groups withhold the negative charge. This forms a tetrahedral shaped structure or intermediate. The carbon is attached to the –OH group due to it being electrophilic.
With that being said, since potassium is a mineral and nearly 98% of the ions are found within the cells, even the slightest bit of changes in the level of potassium that is found outside the cells may also cause severe effects on the heart, nerves, and muscles. The control of potassium is regulated by removing the excess amount of it into the
• the type of disinfectant used ,say for considering case of disinfection by chlorine dioxide (ClO2) substantial amount of chlorite (ClO2 -) is formed which acts as a precursor or product. (Bull ,1982) • the disinfection dose, • the residual disinfection involved, • nature and conditions of disinfection • temperature, and pH, • reaction time, • nature of source water • the constituents of water (organic as well as inorganic ), and • most importantly the concentrations and properties of naturally present organic matter (NOM)in the water. Thus ,the amount of organic precursors including the algal load in the drinking water to be treated , water temperature and pH, the amount and type of chemical disinfectants, and the stage in the process
Wet method is also called chemical method which includes precipitation, hydrothermal technique and hydrolysis. While dry method consist solid state reaction method. The final material varies according to preparative route in the aspects of morphology, stoichiometry, and level of crystallinity. Recent development involves sol-gel, spray pyrolysis, mechanochemical method which is well recognized in literature. Sakka and co-workers first employed sol-gel method to prepare HAp.
A hydrate is a compound, where water molecules are chemically bounded to another compound or element. An anhydrate is the substance remaining after removing water from a hydrate. The hydrate in this lab was Copper Sulfate. The hydrates formula is CuSO4 times xH2O. The purpose of this lab was to pull the water from a hydrate to expose the anhydrate and calculate what the hydrate is by finding the formula for the
In the separatory funnel, the top layer is the organic solvent and the bottom layer because the aqueous solvent has a higher density thus it sinks. The property of "like dissolves like" can be used to distinguish or to be certain which solvent is on the top or bottom. A few drops of water introduced through the top of the separatory funnel and if the water drops mix with the first layer, then the first layer is the aqueous solvent but if it passes the first layer and goes to the second layer then the bottom layer is the aqueous solvent. However, the aqueous solvent being the bottom layer is not always the case and this can be seen when halogenated solvents such as dichloromethane are mixed with water. Halogenated solvents are denser than aqueous solvents and thus halogenated solvents sink to the bottom.
Titration is a method that is used to determine the concentration of a solution by allowing certain volume of analyte to react with other concentration-known solution. It is important to know the point where enough titrant is added to react with the analyte, and this point is called the equivalence point. The equivalence point is shown by an indicator solution, which is a substance that changes color of the titrant at the equivalence point. However, in this experiment we are interested in finding the amount of titrant, rather than the equivalence point. There are several ways to determine the concentration of vitamin C, and redox reaction is one of the ways to figure out the concentration.
Dissolving is the process in which a solvent and a solute interact with each other and form a solution. Melting is a physical, or state, change of a solid to a liquid. Based on the provided information if a substance requires a high temperature to melt and dissolves in water, then it is an ionic compound; and if a substance requires a low temperature to melt and does not dissolve in water, then it is a covalent compound. I predict that salt will be an ionic compound, since it is soluble in water, and sugar and wax will be covalent compounds because they
They also serve as carriers for molecules of low water solubility this way isolating their hydrophobic nature, including lipid soluble hormones, bile salts, unconjugated bilirubin, free fatty acids (apoprotein), calcium, ions (transferrin), and some drugs like warfarin, phenobutazone, clofibrate & phenytoin. For this reason, it's sometimes referred as a molecular "taxi". Competition between drugs for albumin binding sites may cause drug interaction by increasing the free fraction of one of the drugs, thereby affecting
Solubility of a Salt Introduction: The solubility of a pure substance in a particular solvent is the quantity of that substance that will dissolve in a given amount of a solvent. Solubility varies with the temperature of the solvent. Thus, solubility must be expressed as quantity of solute per quantity of solvent at a specific temperature. For most ionic solids, especially salts, and water, solubility varies directly with the temperature. That is, the higher the temperature of the solvent (water), the more solute (salt) that will dissolve in it.
Another category of chemical reactions is single-replacement. In a single-replacement reaction, a molecule composed of a cation, or atom with a positive charge, and an anion, or atom with a negative charge, is introduced to a pure element. When mixed together, the anion from the reactant molecule will transfer over to the pure element, causing the original cation to become a pure element. When magnesium metal is placed in hydrochloric acid: Mg + 2HCl --> MgCl2 + H2. Here, it can be seen that the chlorine anion that was a part of the hydrochloric acid is transferred to the pure magnesium, leaving behind hydrogen.
Solution is a mixture of 2 or more kinds of molecules or atoms or ions that is homogenous (meaning uniform throughout) 2. Solute is what is being dissolved 3. Solvent is doing the dissolving B: Water’s Unusual Properties 1. Moderating Temperature: Specific Heat A. Specific Heat is the amount of energy required to rise the temperature of a substance 1 Celsius degree C: Hydrophobic & Hydrophilic Molecules 1.