1.1 Problem Summary and Introduction: In accordance with the invention, a turbocharger system comprises a turbocharger having a turbine wheel and a compressor wheel mounted on a common shaft and respectively received within turbine and compressor housings. The turbine and compressor housings are mounted on a center housing including bearings for rotatably supporting the shaft, and lubricant circulation passages for supplying a lubricant such as oil to the bearings. In operation, exhaust gases from a combustion engine rotatably drive the turbine wheel which correspondingly drives the compressor wheel to supply high density charge air to the engine. Conveniently, the engine includes a separate hydraulic system such as a lubrication system
Table 2 Advantages and disadvantages of different types of heat pumps Type of Heat Pump Advantages Disadvantages Vapor Recompression Proven technology with very good performance Simpler process (when compared to traditional compression) Recycle of produced vapour within the system (no need for external working fluid) Low operating cost Ease of design and operation Potential for high investment cost (although this is largely dependent on design) Potentially long payback times (unacceptable for industry deployment) Use of high grade energy (electricity / mechanical work) Possibility of leakage is a concern Vapour Compression Proven at industrial scale (mature technology) No major modifications to processes with implementation Useful with corrosive and fouling components Option to drive with mechanical energy or electrical energy Acceptable efficiencies (up to 60% of Carnot’s limit) Design dependent on the ability of the heat exchange fluid to meet stringent operational, environmental and safety
The capacity of this system is limited to the rate at which external cooling liquid can remove heat in a liquid to liquid heat exchanger. Condensation has a much higher heat transfer coefficient than the forced convection used in this system. Due to the above reasons, this system would be inappropriate for electronic enclosures which have high power dissipation per unit
Throttle valve A device that controls the flow of fuel and the power the engine makes. Sometimes a throttle valve is reffered to as a butterfly. As the gas pedal is depressed, the throttle opens allowing more air and fuel to enter the combustion chamber and resulting to more power. In a fuel injection system, this valve controls the flow of air only as the vehicle's on-board computer regulates the fuel
Pump (P-02) Analysis P101 is located between the electrostatic coalesce and the floating storage unit. Pump P-02 is required to pump a flow(S10) which consists of heavy crude oil into the floating storage unit. There will be pressure losses from pipe length and pipe fittings such as check valves. Centrifugal pumps are used as they are relatively inexpensive and they have few moving parts, therefore tend to have greater onstream availability. Assumptions There are some assumptions that were involved in the calculations that I have made.
When dealing with fluid flow and fluid systems, it’s important to understand what kind of viscosity the fluid has to better control the output of the system. A big factor that affects viscosity is the temperature in which the fluid will be in. If the fluid is in a higher temperature, the viscosity will be low and the flow will be high. If the fluid is in a lower temperature environment, the viscosity will be higher and the flow will be lower. Making sure that the user has the proper viscosity and flow is key in having the maximum performance for the system.
SUPERIOR PERFORMANCE MODULAR COMBUSTION CHAMBER: The aerospike engine is made up of small thrusters which are easy to develop and less expensive too.This gives greater versatility to the engine. LESS RISK OF FAILURE: It uses simple gas generator with low chamber pressure which reduces the risk of catastrophic explosion. Though the performance may reduce due to low chamber pressure,The high expansion ratio of aerospike makes up for this. LOWER VEHICLE WEIGHT: Though aerospike nozzles tend to be heavier than bell nozzle, it shares major structural elements with vehicle, thereby reducing the weight. LOWER DRAG: The base portion is filled by aerospike nozzle, which reduces the base drag.
It can be calculated according to type of material. If humidity of the raw material is very high than the quality of briquettes is less. 4.1.2 Compacting Pressure Compacting pressure is most important factor which is affect the quality of briquettes. Higher the pressure higher the strength of briquettes. Rise in temperature of material during the briquetting process reduce the needed pressure for briquetting for desired quality.
This, in short, is fluidized bed combustion. While it is necessary that temperature of bed should be at minimum equal to the ignition temperature of fuel and it should not be allowed to approach ash fusion temperature (1050°c to 1150°c) to avoid melting of ash. This is achieved by extracting heat from the bed through evaporator tubes immersed into bed. If velocity is less, fluidization will not takes place, and if the gas velocity is high, the groups of atoms i.e. (particles) will be entrained into gas stream and lost.
In addition, gas turbine plants can be used in water scarcity areas and less pollution and less water is required (Dhiman, 2014). Disadvantages of gas turbine plant 66% of the power developed is used to drive the compressor. Therefore the gas turbine unit has a low thermal efficiency. Second, the running speed of gas turbine is in the range of (40,000 to 100,000 rpm) and the operating temperature is as high as 1100 – 12600C. For this reason special metals and alloys have to be used for the various parts of the turbine.