Vapor Compression (VC) (Figure 7): a working fluid is evaporated at the condenser (by condensing another fluid, such as the top product from a distillation or stripping column). The working fluid is then compressed to a higher temperature (saturation) condensed in the reboiler (often determined by the specific conditions and materials within a process) and cooled down by expansion over a throttle valve to a (saturation) temperature below the condenser temperature. One of the most important design variables when using a vapor compression heat pump is the choice of an adequate working fluid. An example that can be seen in industry the ethylene-ethane separation using propylene as working fluid (Bruinsma & Spoelstra, 2010) Thermo-acoustic heat
In order to reduce the size, we can increase the divergent angle but it reduces the performance at low altitude, as it leads to flow separation and over-expansion. Bell Nozzle: It is called so because of it’s shape. There is divergence in the nozzle at two sections: Near the throat, where the divergence angle is relatively large. Further downstream, it tapers off. Near the nozzle exit, the divergence angle is very small.
once we pull down at any purpose, the dentifrice comes out of the outlet. The force applied has transmitted from one place to a different through the dentifrice, that may be a thick, liquid fluid. This principle is employed within the operation of four-wheeled hydraulic automobile brakes. once the treadle is pushed and also the piston within the hydraulic brake cylinder is forced against the fluid therein cylinder. This push exerts pressure on the fluid because it did on the dentifrice within the tube.
As a consequence, air enters the opening faster than air can pass through the tube and escape at the rear. Air molecules pile up inside the tube, and as more and more are crammed in the pressure inside the tube increases. As the pressure increases it tries to push air back out through the front of the tube. Equilibrium is reached between the pressure of the inrushing air and the pressure of the air in the tube, and the supersonic shock wave at the inlet is reshaped to be flat across the inlet opening. In fact, the edges of this shock wave are typically perpendicular to the inside surface of the tube, so it is called a "normal" shock wave (normal means
Using incompressible liquids so the applied pressure from one end is equal to the desired pressure on the other end, a small amount of force can be applied that gets multiplied into a large amount of force. With this, a great amount of work can be accomplished using only a little amount of force. For instance when you press the PTO button on a dump truck, hydraulics will act, thereby opening the tailgate of the truck and lifting the bed of the truck together with the load for dumping purposes. (PTO stands for Power Take Off, any of several methods for taking power from a running engine of a dump truck , and transmitting it to the applications that control the trailer and
When dealing with fluid flow and fluid systems, it’s important to understand what kind of viscosity the fluid has to better control the output of the system. A big factor that affects viscosity is the temperature in which the fluid will be in. If the fluid is in a higher temperature, the viscosity will be low and the flow will be high. If the fluid is in a lower temperature environment, the viscosity will be higher and the flow will be lower. Making sure that the user has the proper viscosity and flow is key in having the maximum performance for the system.
CHAPTER 1 1. INTRODUCTION: Stirling engine is an engine that works on the principle of pressure difference caused due to the temperature difference between the two chambers, such that there is a net conversion of heat energy to mechanical work. The Stirling engine is a closed cycle regenerative heat engine in which the working fluid is permanently contained within the system. The air inside the chamber expands due to the heat source and pushes the piston, thus achieving a perpetual motion. The Stirling engine is noted for high efficiency when compared to the steam engines and it has an ability to use almost any heat source.
The pipe is in the form of a venturi it narrows in section and then widens again, causing the airflow to increase in speed in the narrowest part. Below the venturi is a butterfly valve called the throttle valve a rotating disc that can be turned end-on to the airflow, so as to hardly restrict the flow at all, or can be rotated so that it (almost) completely blocks the flow of air. This valve controls the flow of air through the carburetor throat and thus the quantity of air/fuel mixture the system will deliver, thereby regulating engine power and speed. The throttle is connected, usually through a cable or a mechanical linkage of rods and joints or rarely by pneumatic link, to the accelerator pedal on a car or the equivalent control on other vehicles or
CHAPTER 1: ABSTRACT Bernoulli’s Principle is known as Bernoulli’s Equation. It defined as relationship between the pressure of the fluid and the velocity of the fluid. In addition, Bernoulli’s equations generally apply in water, air or any fluid that contact of lower viscosity. Therefore, the principle has as many applications, such as pitot tube, pitot static tube, venture meter, aerofoils and etc. CHAPTER 2 : INTRODUCTION According to fluid dynamics, Bernoulli’s principle is involved the speed of the fluid through a pressure difference, as increasing in the speed of the fluid will be occurred at the same time with a decrease in pressure or a decrease the potential energy.
A dielectric liquid is a liquid which is a poor conductor of electricity but a good supporter of an electrostatic field. At specified pressure a fluid boils isothermally (no change in temperature due to the energy supplied going into converting the state of the liquid to a vapour). A large amount of heat is absorbed during this process which is essentially isothermal. This process is taking advantage of the high heat transfer coefficient associated with boiling. Another advantage is that by immersing the electronic component in a liquid medium, the temperature throughout is uniform.