It has two separate but paired cylinders for performing the conventional four strokes of Intake, Compression, Power and Exhaust. The first cylinder, generally known as the Compression Cylinder, used for taking the air inside and compressing it. The compressed air is then sent to the second cylinder through a passage known as the Crossover Passage. The second cylinder, generally known as the Power Cylinder, used for Power and Exhaust Strokes [53.1 Compression Curve: The compression stroke is negative work, or energy that the engine expends to do work on the gas. When the piston is at the Top Dead Center (TDC) during the intake stroke, the inlet valve of the compression cylinder opens allowing the atmospheric air to enter into the cylinder at atmospheric pressure (low pressure).
3.2 Frame work FIG. 3.2.1 FIG.3.2.2 3.3 Mixing chamber The mixing tube is where the abrasive mixes with high pressure gases. The mixing tube should be replaced when tolerance drop below acceptable levels. For maximum accuracy, replace the mixing tube more frequently. Parameters describing the mixing chamber are: L=Mixing Chamber length: L = Vc /Ac Ac = Cross sectional area of mixing chamber: Ac=3.14D2/4 Vc = Volume of mixing chamber: Vc= 1.1(Ac*Lc) The thickness of the
Fig(1) indicate type of pump. kinetic: Add energy specifically through a turning part as speed, and changes over the speed to weight. Positive displacement: Operate by constraining a settled volume of fluid from the inlet weight area of the pump into the release zone of the pump. They add vitality straightforwardly to a portable limit, which imparts the vitality to the fluid. .
This report examines a study on the performance characteristics of a centrifugal pump; conditions under which cavitation appears and the net positive suction head, and power consumption in a stirred tank. The performance of a centrifugal pump was evaluated by determining the total head, power consumption, and efficiency. Cavitation was measured and used to determine the net positive suction head (NPSH). Additionally the power consumption for different mixing agitators was calculated using the Reynolds number, Power number, and Froude number. The experiment was divided into two parts using two different pieces of machinery, a centrifuge pump and a mixing tank.
C., 1970, p. 158) Reynolds Number Sir Osborne Reynolds conducted a series of experiments on the factors controlling the pressure drop in pipes . Experiment pipe-flow apparatus of Osborne Reynolds (Gillmer & Johnson, 1932, p. 215) At low velocity, the dye filament remained stable and the flow appeared to move smoothly along streamline layers parallel to the walls with maximum velocity at the centre of the pipe (Figure 4). This was called laminar flow. (Gillmer & Johnson, 1932). In a laminar flow, when the water is moving past the hull at low speed, a smooth flow can be observed.
once we pull down at any purpose, the dentifrice comes out of the outlet. The force applied has transmitted from one place to a different through the dentifrice, that may be a thick, liquid fluid. This principle is employed within the operation of four-wheeled hydraulic automobile brakes. once the treadle is pushed and also the piston within the hydraulic brake cylinder is forced against the fluid therein cylinder. This push exerts pressure on the fluid because it did on the dentifrice within the tube.
This energy serves to evaporate the working fluid out of the absorption medium at a high pressure. The absorption medium’s pressure is then reduced via an expansion device as it flows to the absorber. Within the absorber the working fluid is absorbed (P0/T1) back into the medium. This is an exothermic process, meaning usable heat is released at an intermediate temperature. Lastly, the pressure of the mix is increased with a pump and flow back to the generator (where thermal energy is provided in the first place).
Figure 4.1 –Indication of various points in the diagram Figure 4.1 shows the schematic diagram of a cooling system with numbering at each point throughout the system to indicate where the temperatures and pressures vary, heat loads and flow varies with respect to the speed of the engine. It is not a model just a assumption that cooling system contains minimum apparatus to run. So, through these assumptions a program was developed to evaluate the operating values of cooling system of any design. 1 P¬2 = P1 – ρg[(K12(ṁ/ρA12)2/2g) – Z1 + Z2] 2 P3 = Pamb + ρgZsurge 3 P¬4 = P3 – ρg[(K34(ṁ/ρA34)2/2g) – Z3 + Z4] 4 P5 = P4 + ρgHpump 5 P¬6 = P5 – ρg[(K56(ṁ/ρA56)2/2g) – Z5 + Z6] 6 P¬7 = P6 – ρg[(K67(ṁ/ρA12)2/2g) – Z6 + Z7] 7 P¬6a = P6 – ρg[(K66a(ṁrec/ρA66a)2/2g)
Below given figure1.3a shows Schematic diagram of Rankine cycle. Pump stage (1-2): In the pump stage condensing liquid from the condenser at pressure P1 and temperature T1 is pumped to higher pressure P2 by giving work input to the pump. There by small increase in temp takes place, the increase in temperature is denoted as T2. Pump work is calculated by WP= (P2-P1)/ρ* η pump or WP= ṁ*(h2-h1). Where, ρ denotes the density of working fluid in (Kg/m3).
In the process of producing electricity from water, there are a few principles and theories that have to be employed to systematically build efficient and productive components. In hydro power stations, moving water from a dam or river at some elevated level falls on to the blades of a hydro turbine at a certain velocity. This velocity can be calculated using equation 1, which is derived from the equation of mechanical energy, where V is the velocity at which it strikes the turbine, G is the acceleration due to gravity and H is the height of the water about the surface of the earth . V=√2GH (1) When the water strikes the turbine, it causes it to rotate at some angular velocity, in order to find this angular velocity, the mass of the water striking the turbine and the moment of inertia of the turbine must be calculated. The mass of the water can be found using equation 2, where M is the mass of the water, ᵨ is the density of water and V is the volume of the water