When grated orange peels are used, more orange oil will be extracted through steam distillation in 15 minutes. On the other hand, orange peels which are cut into small pieces will yield less orange oil in 15 minutes. The greater the volume of extracted orange oil at a given time, the higher the extraction rate. This is because smaller size of orange peels has larger surface area exposed to heat. The extraction rate can be calculated by using the formula below: 2.
This may have led to the outliers because as the pressure increased it became more difficult to push the syringe, so it was pushed faster contributing to greater pressure and temperature than if the syringe was pushed at the same speed each test. Finally, it is impossible to read the temperature and pressure at the exact same times and due to their fluctuation, even as the volume was kept the same, the results were not completely accurate. These all could have contributed to the outliers; however, the only way to know which one would be to conduct more
The hypothesis was proven to be true, because there are more enzymes to react with substrates. For the enzyme—factors affecting, the hypothesis concluded was if the temperature increases, than the enzyme activity will increase. This however was proven wrong, because enzymes become unstable at higher temperatures. They enzyme peroxidase can become denatured in
HPLC is an improved form of column chromatography. It uses high pressures to force the solvent through the column instead of just using gravity. By using much higher pressure than normal, the process becomes much faster and it allows the use of smaller particle size for the column packing material. Having smaller particles gives a larger surface area for interactions between the stationary phase and the molecules flowing through it which means better separation. Absorbance There are two main ways HPLC are used, normal phase and reverse phase.
Why or why not? I believe the process would be the same in that hot water has a faster flow rate causing the substance to disperse faster. However, depending on how dense each substance is will determine how long it actually takes to disperse. Do you believe you would see the same results if you used a different solvent life rubbing alcohol? I believe the results will still be that of diffusion and dispersion, however, the time to completely diffuse will be different because each solvent has a different density.
Hypothesis: Increasing the temperature of Hydrogen Carbonate and Acetic acid should result in a faster rate of reaction (faster production of H2O, CO2, and C2H3NaO2). This is because when the temperature increases of the solution, the faster the particles move the more frequent the collisions between reactant particles. Safety precautions: When dealing with these solutions there isn’t very much to worry about, as the solutions are things that are worked with daily. These are water, vinegar, baking soda, and carbon dioxide. However when dealing with the hot plate gloves should be worn and the beakers needed to be carried with carefulness, as the beaker will be hot after being on the hot plate.
Soap disrupts the hydrogen bonds in water, which are the building blocks that keep water molecules together, so when soap severs those bonds, soap causes the water to overflow and the surface tension breaks. By adding more soapy water to the penny, the soapy water’s surface tension will break faster than the tap water. The average number of drops with tap water was higher than the number of drops with soapy water, once again proving my hypothesis right. The highest number of drops I counted with the soapy water was much less than my lowest number of drops with tap water. The highest number of drops I recorded for tap water was more than double the lowest number of soapy water drops.
Higher rates of Rutuba fertilizer led to low exchangeable acidity while higher rates of NPK led to higher exchangeable acidity. Rutuba fertilizer application rates led to higher total carbon content than NPK application rates. Application of 1875 kg Rutuba/ha had significantly the highest carbon content. Application of 1875 kg Rutuba/ha had significantly higher content of Mn than all the other fertilizer regimes. The manganese content increased as the Rutuba rates increased.
This was likely due to increased contact of the hot and cold streams because of the compactness of the plate exchanger. This resulted in further heat transfer between the hot and cold streams, but also a longer time to reach steady state . In the future, the energy balance and heat-transfer rate may be improved if the time at each flow rate value was extended to verify that the temperatures were completely
Predictions were not made in this part of the lab. In the data collected it displayed a trend, as the different percentage of the 2M HCI got closer to 100% the reaction happened quicker. The collisions of the molecules happened more frequently when using the 100% 2M HCI rather than the 25% in the reaction because of the higher concentrations. Displayed in Figure 2A the 100% 2M HCI had a higher starting and ending point on the graph compared to 25%, 50%, and 75%. Looking at Figure 2 shows the comparison of the different concentrations of the 2m HCI.