Hydrochloric Acid Titration

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Aim: The aim of this experiment is to monitor the pH change using a pH meter and data logger as HCl is titrated with NaOH and to then determine the molarity of the HCl solution.
A titration is an analytical method in which the unknown concentration of a solution, analyte, is calculated by determining the volume of a solution with known concentration needed, titrant, to completely react with the analyte. In this case the hydrochloric acid solution (HCl) is the analyte since its concentration is unknown and it is titrated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) which serves as a titrant since its concentration is known. This is as an acid-base titration and in it the hydrogen ions from the HCl react with hydroxide ions from the NaOH to produce water. From the equation of the reaction it can be seen that HCl and NaOH react in one-to-one ratio:
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As the base, NaOH, is added drop by drop the pH gradually increases until the equivalence point. This is when the amount of hydroxide ions (from base) added equals to the amount of hydrogen ions (from acid) present in the solution. At this point the pH increases very rapidly until it reaches a more gradual rate of

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