Bottom Chamber liquid: Ethanol has a very low boiling point. When you heat the bottom chamber with your hand, the liquid molecules in the hand boiler increase in kinetic energy (increased temperature); the liquid expands. This rise in temperature causes the liquid to start to evaporate. Because there is some evaporation, but no condensation, the equilibrium is ruined in the hand boiler until the evaporated molecules lose kinetic energy and become liquid again (cool off). Bottom Chamber gas: When you apply heat to the bottom chamber, the gas increases in pressure because of the evaporated molecules.
Substrate concentration basically means the amount used for the substrate. The substrate in our experiment was 0.1% hydrogen peroxide. The 0.1% is the concentration amount. Just like temperature and pH, substrate concentration can speed the reaction only up to a certain limit. When we mixed pH 3 enzyme tube with substrate tube, we used 0.3 mL of hydrogen peroxide, but if we were to increase the amount, then the experiment would have been faster.
In the blue dye experiment the dye in the hot water moved faster than the dye in the cold water because molecules move faster when heated than molecules in cold water. In the hot beaker the water molecules attracted each other faster because molecules move faster in hot water. In the cold beaker the water molecules attracted each other but molecules move slower in cold water. The pattern of the cold water was stringy because the molecules move slower so the dye spread out slower. The pattern in the hot beaker spread out pretty fast but the dye did not go to the bottom of the beaker because heat rises.
Although some water molecules will spontaneously adopt the vapour form at all temperatures, water is nothing like as volatile as other similar molecules. This is fortunate, as it ensures the persistence of surface water in most climate zones typical of the Earth’s surface. It also explains why the wholesale conversion of water to vapour (i.e. by boiling to form steam, which is just the word for hot water vapour) occurs only at temperatures in excess of 100 ° C: far higher than would otherwise be expected for a molecule of its size and shape. Yet again, this proves crucial to the success of carbon-based
Self-Design Lab Rubric Name(s): Cassidy Gale Redding TITLE: The Affect Different Liquids have on Dry Ice’s CO2 Release I. DESIGN: How long does it take a piece of dry ice to sublimate in different liquids? Background Theory: Dry ice is the solid form of CO2, therefore it sublimates instead of melts. Sublimation is a solid turning into a gas instead of a liquid. When placed in water, dry ice reacts by sublimating faster because of the added temperature.
Concentration of acid and reaction time Aim In this experiment, I’m going to find out the relationship between concentration (mole) of acid and carbonate’s reaction. Hypothesis If the concentration of acid is stronger, then the film canister will pop (react) faster. Because the concentration of Sodium carbonate is always same in my experiment, so the factor that changes the volume of carbon dioxide is concentration of Hydrochloric acid. If the concentration gets bigger, the proportion of acid gets bigger, which means there are more particles (molecule) that will bond with other particles (molecule). For this experiment, the proportion to get a CO2 is 2HCl+Na2CO3 = CO2.., which is 2+ Na2CO3 : 1.
As much was conducted throughout this lab, the projected completion of this lab displays that ultimately, the higher the temperature of the water, the faster the dissolving rate of the Alka-Seltzer is. In other words, the hotter the water temperature the quicker the tablet dissolves within the water in regards to the amount of time it took to dissolve. Furthermore, this experiment helps to explain that, if water is taken at a higher temperature and Alka-Seltzer is placed within the water, the Alka-Seltzer will take less time to dissolve because the higher temperatures cause the tablet to melt at a quicker rate. This compares to when Alka-Seltzer is placed in colder temperatures, where instead it takes more time to dissolve, because the lower
Ethyl formate was the fasted to react because the pH stabilized the fastest. This may have been because the carbonyl was less sterically hindered being that it was only connected to a hydrogen allowing the nucleophile to attack the fastest. The electronic factor for ethyl formate was neutral in being electron withdrawing or electron donating, but more electron withdrawing meaning the carbonyl was more reactive. Ethyl acetate was the second ester that reacted the fasted after ethyl formate. This could have been because it was more sterically hinder since the carbonyl group was connected to a primary carbon.
On the other hand, 132 seconds were needed for the solution with the crushed tablet to stop reacting, which is the one with the reactant having a larger surface area. In a reaction, the absence of fizzing indicates that the chemical process has ended. Average rate of reaction (Whole Tablet) = 100 / 160 = 0,625 Average rate of reaction (Crushed Tablet) = 100 / 132 = 0,757 0,757 > 0,625 All these information signifies that the powdered vitamin C increased the reaction rate by causing the reaction to take place in a decreased amount of time. From the graph it is also clear that the rate of reaction took place with a fairly higher speed when the powdered vitamin C was used. Based on the previous results, the hypothesis was confirmed.
Steam distillation will allow the clove oil to co-distill with the water, which take place at a least temperature than the boiling temperature of the individual solutions. This is desirable, because the components of clove oils get decompose at high temperatures. Then