When a vast number of water molecules are mixing freely in the liquid form, the positive poles are attracted to the negative poles by what amounts to static electricity. This electrostatic attraction is termed a hydrogen bond. It is about 20 times weaker than the H – O bonds within any one water molecule, but still gives rise to considerable, transient adhesion, which packs the water molecules closely together in the liquid state. In contrast, as the temperature falls below about 4 ° C and ice begins to form, the hydrogen bonds between the molecules become longer lived. They eventually settle into a rigid, rather open framework, comprising a stack of tetrahedrons, in which each oxygen atom is hydrogen-bonded to four surrounding oxygen atoms.
Substrate concentration basically means the amount used for the substrate. The substrate in our experiment was 0.1% hydrogen peroxide. The 0.1% is the concentration amount. Just like temperature and pH, substrate concentration can speed the reaction only up to a certain limit. When we mixed pH 3 enzyme tube with substrate tube, we used 0.3 mL of hydrogen peroxide, but if we were to increase the amount, then the experiment would have been faster.
Concentration of acid and reaction time Aim In this experiment, I’m going to find out the relationship between concentration (mole) of acid and carbonate’s reaction. Hypothesis If the concentration of acid is stronger, then the film canister will pop (react) faster. Because the concentration of Sodium carbonate is always same in my experiment, so the factor that changes the volume of carbon dioxide is concentration of Hydrochloric acid. If the concentration gets bigger, the proportion of acid gets bigger, which means there are more particles (molecule) that will bond with other particles (molecule). For this experiment, the proportion to get a CO2 is 2HCl+Na2CO3 = CO2.., which is 2+ Na2CO3 : 1.
The long exposure to the low heat evaporated the water, thus increasing the concentration of Sodium Thiosulfate. The accuracy of the results was changed with the altered concentration. To increase the accuracy of the results, the blue flame should have been used to make the solution reach the temperature needed quicker. This would allow the Sodium Thiosulfate and the Hydrochloric acid to mix in a longer duration of
Bottom Chamber liquid: Ethanol has a very low boiling point. When you heat the bottom chamber with your hand, the liquid molecules in the hand boiler increase in kinetic energy (increased temperature); the liquid expands. This rise in temperature causes the liquid to start to evaporate. Because there is some evaporation, but no condensation, the equilibrium is ruined in the hand boiler until the evaporated molecules lose kinetic energy and become liquid again (cool off). Bottom Chamber gas: When you apply heat to the bottom chamber, the gas increases in pressure because of the evaporated molecules.
Some boards are able to contain fire resistant properties and others are denser making them stronger. The type of board I will be using has a density of 100 kg/m but will retain the same thermal conductivity but using a different grade of polyurethane foam that has fire resistant properties. This type of insulation has a relatively high compressive and tensile strength but during its production it does give off quite large amounts of Co2 and does contain toxic materials that could prove to be harmful to the surrounding environment. Although more costly the insulation having a higher strength and fire resistance will ensure that less maintenance will have to occur and so could be less expensive long
Yes the differences in the salts density will affect how much the salt floats. The dilution with the most salt will be the most dense. This is also buoyancy because the egg is floating in a liquid. I also thi9nk the one with the most volume will float the most. Did you know that saltwater is more dense than fresh water?
The chlorine atoms that are replaced by hydrogen atoms causes a higher presence and both are covalent bondings with strong intermolecular forces. The double bondings (Or triple bondings) in hydrocarbon tends to be stronger, but the chemical is flammable. Fluorocarbons are not flammable and are also polar covalent bondings, making them stable to ultraviolet radiation and prevents them from catalysing ozone depletion. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), one of the alternatives that contains C-Cl bondings have most of its molecules dismantled in the lower atmosphere before reaching the stratospheric ozone layer. Another chemical, Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), having no chlorine atoms which does not bring harm to the ozone layer is considered the best alternative since they are not flammable, such as CF3CH2F,1,1,12 tetrafluoroethane.
Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reaction, and they work best at their optimal conditions (optimum pH, temperature etc.) but when the environment is not close to the optimum conditions, the enzymes denature and do not function anymore1. An excellent example would of the effect of temperature on yeast fermentation would be that the bacterial cells if exposed to very high temperature (above the optimal) would no longer function since their enzymes are denatured. The yeast would produce the most Carbon dioxide in the optimal temperature (45 °C ±1/°C) and other temperatures below the optimal temperature would not produce sufficient Carbon dioxide and any temperature above will produce too much that it will lead to the sinking of the bread and death of yeast because its enzymes have been denatured, therefore the reaction will stop. The bread will certainly sink if is not exposed to the right temperature the yeast will not ferment
Think of it like this, adding salt to the water makes it like an ocean which is easier to float and swim in than just normal/ distilled water. This is because salt makes water denser. When salt water gets denser, the easier it would be for objects to float on it. My hypothesis was correct. The water did go inside the egg, but the ones with least salt increased the most, unless the egg was the smallest and it had enough space to take in a lot of extra water.