Factors that Influence Enzyme Function There are several factors that affect the enzyme function as well as the rate at which the enzyme reactions proceed. Some factors include temperature, pH, enzyme concentration, substrate concentration, and the presence of any inhibitors or activators. Temperature Temperature affects greatly as the temperature rises, reacting molecules have more and more kinetic energy. This increases the chances of a successful collision, thus the rate increases. This factor also have a certain optimal temperature.
As a result of respiratory alkalosis there is an increase in the concentration of 2,3 diphosphoglycerate(DPG). 2,3-DPG is an allosteric regulator of haemoglobin affinity for oxygen. Its binding at an allosteric site leads to increased affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen. which increases the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood resulting in a leftward shift in the oxygen dissociation curve. This would have a positive effect in delivering more oxygen to the tissues and would be especially important if exercise was to be carried out as more oxygen is being use by the tissues.
Boston Pearson). Enzymes work by lowering the activation energy of the reaction making the reaction produce faster. Enzymes begin to catalyze chemical reactions with the binding of the substrate to the active site on the enzyme. The products are released from the enzyme surface to regenerate the enzyme for another reaction cycle. The active site has a unique geometric shape that is complementary to the shape of a substrate molecule, similar to the fit of puzzle pieces.
Leave the bottle standing, and the oil always separates from the water and rises to the top, because it’s lighter and will never form bonds with water (hydrophobic). The highly unsaturated fats on healthy cells are selectively permeable - meaning they can become water soluble to transport essential nutrients to the cells, or they can be hydrophobic, like the waxy leaf and water droplets on the next page. <<>> Water droplets are aggregates of hydrogen and oxygen atoms linked by hydrogen atoms (H2O), but the leaf’s waxy surface never bonds with the water, as the waxy (lipid) surface and water repel each other, like the hydrophobic components of cell
Hydrochloric acid is a chemical used in the process of digestion and is a vital to our ongoing health and well being. The concentration of hydrochloric acid in the stomach is approximately 0.05 – 0.1 moles/litre (M). However hydrochloric acid at 18% is used in many industrial processes and has the capacity to melt steal. Aim The purpose of this experiment is to investigate how altering the concentration of hydrochloric acid, when reacting with sodium thiosulfate, can change the rate of a reaction. Hypothesis If three beakers are filled with sodium thiosulfate and differing concentration levels of hydrochloric acid then, the rate of reaction will occur quicker using a higher concentration of hydrochloric acid.
Tertiary alkyl halides tend to give a mixture with both inverted and retained configurations at reaction centers. This is because this reaction proceeds through a stable carbocation intermediate and the carbon at the reaction center goes to sp2 hybridized state (planar geometry). The incoming nucleophile can attack from both sides of the plane and can give two products with retained and inverted configuration. If there is a partial interaction with the leaving group (nucleofuge) with carbocation there will be more product with inverted configuration and if there is no interaction with leaving group racemic mixture can be obtained. The rate of the reaction depends on the formation of a carbocation (which is the slow step) and there is one molecule
HIF regulates the expression of many target genes in response to hypoxia. These genes include vascular endothelial growth factor, erythropoietin, and glycolytic enzymes that are transcriptionally induced under hypoxic conditions by HIF. [6,7] It is also known as oxygen-sensitive transcriptional activator (Qingdong et al., 2006) because it regulates the oxygen in human body. In human body HIF complex coordinates the myriad responses to decreased oxygen tension by promoting compensatory mechanisms acting at the cellular as well as organismal level that include enhancing the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood, decreasing cellular oxygen demand, and increasing glycolysis. HIFs are heterodimeric protein comprising of HIF-α subunits (i.e.
Referring to what was stated, the Hydrogen peroxide solution did change based yeast that activated the solution, many were similar in temperature. This is because the yeast decomposes the hydrogen peroxide into oxygen and water. This is because hydrogen peroxide is unstable and when decomposed increases in thermal
Theorem one is that molecules such as protein and polysaccharides are more concentrated inside the cell than outside the cell when the cell is in distilled water. These molecules therefore begin to move outside of the cell because of the process of diffusion, but are blocked by the cell membrane. As a result, these molecules push on the cell membrane and makes the cell appear bigger. Theorem two is that water molecules move into the cell because of the concentration of the water is greater outside the cell than it is inside the cell. My hypothesis is that theorem two is the real reason why red blood cells appear bigger in distilled water.
For galactose, it is an isomer of glucose with a hydroxyl group on carbon 4 reversed in positions and it is mostly found in carbohydrates used in cellular recognition, so it is not found in the spread. Aldehydes and ketones that have an OH group on the carbon next to the carbonyl group react with a basic solution of Cu2+ (Benedict’s reagent) to form a red orange precipitate of copper(I) oxide (CuO). Sugars that undergo this reaction are called reducing sugars and all of the monosaccharides are reducing