Then, we did reflux for 75 minutes. After reflux, we removed the reaction mixture from the apparatus and cooled it for several minutes. We transferred the mixture to the beaker that contained water (30 mL). We cooled the mixture to room temperature and added sodium carbonate to neutralize the mixture. We added sodium carbonate until the pH of the mixture was 8.
DMF was used as a solvent and AIBN (0.5% w/w of total monomer) as free radical initiator .The reaction was carried out at 70±2° C for 6 hour with constant stirring. After completion of the process it was cooled to room temperature and resultant polymer solution was poured in the large amount of methanol with stirring when polymer precipitated out. It was filtered and washed with methanol. The polymer was purified by repeated precipitation using methanol from solution in DMF and then it dried. 2.3 Preparation of PS
Rose Bengal-(bis(aminoethyl)ethylene glycol) (2) from Rose Bengal disodium salt (1) The synthesis was done following procedure from . Rose Bengal Na+ salt (915 mg, 0.90 mmol) was dissolved in DMF (2ml) and DIPEA (0.312 ml, 1.80 mmol), HATU (308 mg, 0.81 mmol) were added. After activation for 15 min, the mixture was added to O-Bis-(aminoethyl)ethylene glycol trityl resin (309 mg, 0.31 mmol) preswollen in DMF for 2 hours. The coupling reaction wrapped in aluminum foil was allowed to proceed overnight on a nitrogen bubbler apparatus. The resulting red-burgundy coloured resin was filtered and washed well with DMF.
The Maxwell Distribution Curve below supports the prediction about the increase of temperature, increasing the rate of reaction. Curves T1 and T2 show the distribution of kinetic energies for gaseous at those two temperatures. Curve T2 represents a higher temperature and thus is positively skewed. The peak of the graph with the most molecules is shifted towards a higher kinetic energy and the curve broadens out. For both T1 and T2, the total area under the curve is the same and the fraction of molecules with energy greater than the activation energy (Ea) is significantly larger in T2 than in T1.
2. Experimental 2.1. Catalyst preparation The CuMnOx catalyst was prepared by the co-precipitation method, the aqueous solution manganese acetate (Mn(CH3COO)2.4H2O) and copper (II) nitrate (Cu(NO3)2.2.5H2O) were premixed by stirring for 1 hour. After the proper mixing of the copper nitrate and manganese acetate solution, it was added to the aqueous KMnO4 solution by a burette under the stirring conditions. After dropped completely the copper manganese solution into the precipitant ageing for 2h, then filtered, washing several times with hot deionized water.
To the double digest tube was added 12 μL double digest master mix, and 1.9 μL sterile dH2O. To the single digest tube was added 11 μL single digest master mix, and 2.9 μL sterile dH2O. To the undigested tube was added 10 μL undigested master mix, and 3.9 μL sterile dH2O. Digests were then incubated at 37 °C for one hour and then stored at -20 °C for one week. After which the digestions were examined by gel electrophoresis.
Place the mixture in a petri dish and let it dry in an oven at 140 ˚C for six hours. g. Grind the powder. Place the powder in an alumina crucible and calcine it in air. Then heat it at 900 ˚C for 16 hours in a tube furnace. h. Examine the powder after it has been removed from the oven and cooled.
A citrate tube was inoculated with P. aeruginosa and incubated at 37 degrees Celsius at 24 hours. Once the time elapsed the tube was viewed and it changed from its green color to a dark blue color indicating a positive test. Based on these results the next test administrated was the motility test. A inculcating needle containing P. aeruginosa was placed into the motility medium using aseptic technique. The tube was then placed into an incubator at 37 degrees Celsius for 24 hours.
in the first step benzoic acid was reacted with excess of thionyl chloride using acetonitrile as a solvent and keeping the mixture on an ice bath for 3-4 hours (labeled as reaction mixture a) In the second step gemcitabine hydrochloride along with 3eq tri-ethyl amine and using ethanol again as a solvent was stirred for 15-20 minutes without ice-bath. next with a poisterizing tube the reaction mixture a was drop wise added to reaction mixture b yielding a third and final, reaction mixture c giving off white fumes of socl2. it is stirred for 19 hours and 15minutes at 80c and colour changes to light yellow The preparation of benzoyl chloride from benzoic acid using thionyl chloride at 0’c is an in-situ preparation procedure: FILTERATION: Evaporate reaction mixture and dissolved in hexane and then filter it. The best TLC system for filterate is ethyl acetate : hexane , 4.5:0.5 3.3.2 PROCESS 2 FIGURE 3.5ACETYL DERIVATIVE PROCEDURE In 75mg of gemzar, 2ml ethanol is added and then solubility is checked. After 5 minutes add 0.1 ml (5 drops) DMF, then add 0.104ml Et3N and add 0.036 ml acetyl chloride and stirr it for 17 hours r at 47C
The graph shows the average volume of hydrogen that was produced from the 3 trials and the average volume of oxygen that was produced from the 3 trials across the voltage. I added the volumes of hydrogen in each trial and I divided them by 3 to get the average and I made the same thing for the volume of oxygen. The graph shows that the volume of hydrogen produced during the experiment is twice as much as the volume of oxygen. For example using the third data when I used 11 volts the average volume of hydrogen that was produced was 5.8 cm3 and the average volume of oxygen produced was 2.9 cm3 so when you multiply the 2.9 by 2 it gives you 5.8 cm3 which was my result. As the voltage increases the volume of hydrogen and oxygen increases.