Hydrophoric Cell Lab Report

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Chemicals
Hydroxyethyl cellulose polymer and ethanol, levulinic acid, isopropanol, sodium hydroxide, phosphoric acid were obtained from Sigma Aldrich and Merck.

Experimental procedure
Preparation of catalytic composite membrane

The catalytic composite membrane was prepared by the solution casting method. The composite membrane consisted of catalytic layer and separation layer. The aqueous HEC polymeric membrane was first prepared for the separation layer. The polymeric membrane solution was mixed for 24 hours at room temperature. Then, solution poured on PMMA surface. After one day, diluted polymeric membrane solution was prepared by the addition of 2, 5 and 8 g/L of catalyst SO4-2/ZrO2. The prepared catalytic polymer solution was poured onto the separation HEC layer. After the drying, membrane was immersed
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Effect of the temperature on conversion (8 g/L catalyst loaded membrane, M=1)

Conversion was increased by temperature in both of the BR and the CMR. However, conversion of CMR was higher than conversion of BR. In CMR, water, which occurred from the result of the reaction, was removed from the reaction medium. Therefore, reaction equilibrium shifted toward the products. Thermal mobility of the polymer chains increased with increasing temperature. This situation created free volume in the membrane matrix. Transport of selected components increased through the membrane. Thus, by removing the water had improved the conversion.

After 7 hours, the highest conversion was obtained as 38% at 70oC in the batch reactor. Under the same reaction conditions, the highest conversion 70oC was obtained as 89% in the CMR.

Effect of the catalyst concentration on levulinic acid conversions in the batch reactor and in the CMR

Different ratios of SO4-2/ZrO2 loaded catalytic membranes were prepared and experiments were performed by using equimolar reactant (M=1) at 70oC. Figure 2 shows the change of levulinic acid conversion values in the catalyst loading

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