Dental materials must meet the requirements in the definitions of the term’s biomaterials and biocompatible which are relative to all oral tissue tests for evaluation of biocompatibility. This review article gives brief knowledge about biocompatibility of different materials used in dentistry. Keyword: Biocompatible,Dental materials,Biohazard. INTRODUCTION: Dental
3. Fig. 3. Perforated membrane with square hole From the description of the stress-strain relation in a orthotropic plate, the bending moments are given by : 〖 M〗_x=-h^3/12 [C_11 (∂^2 w)/(∂x^2 )+C_12 (∂^2 w)/(∂y^2 )] (3) 〖 M〗_y=-h^3/12 [C_21 (∂^2 w)/(∂x^2 )+C_22 (∂^2 w)/(∂y^2 )] (4) 〖 M〗_xy=h^3/6 C_44 (∂^2 w)/∂x∂y
Different biomaterials have different kinds of applications. Natural or synthetic polymers along with ceramic materials have been widely used (Swetha et al., 2010). In bone tissue engineering, an ideal biomaterial should be both osteoconductive and osteoinductive for effective tissue regeneration. Many biomaterials with osteoconductive or osteoinductive property or both have been identified and widely studied for their application in bone tissue engineering. But how these biomaterials influence the activities of the cells is still an area that has to be explored.
These studies subject the cell layers to stretch using one- dimensional stretch and two- dimensional strain devices either uniaxially or biaxially. To study the effect of tension on the cell-cell interactions, techniques like Shear stress, Optical traps, Magnetic force application and magnetic twisting have been used.12 However, these techniques prove to be more useful in in-vitro studies. For the purpose of studying the effect of tension on the zebrafish epidermis in vivo, a paradigm was developed in the lab, which constituted injecting a measured volume of biologically and chemically inert mineral oil into the hindbrain ventricle of the zebrafish embryos at 24 hpf (hours post fertilization). This causes the ventricle to expand, thereby stretching the epidermis over the oil drop. This stretch creates a tension in the epidermis, as it now has to cover a larger area.
There have been inadequate studies on the use of Hydroxyapatite as a food complement, as such, its usage is disheartened. Calcium phosphate ceramics biocompatibility results from their chemical masterpiece. The osteo conductive properties of HA and the bioactive properties of β-TCP have been assorted in various ratios to obtain biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) equipment used to provide bone in growth. Exchanges between cells and materials depend on surface state. Surface state determines biological molecule adsorption and cell performance.
ABSTRACT This article explains recent advances in the synthesis and characterization of biomaterials. Biomaterial is any matter, surface, or construct that interacts with living systems which is used to do expected activity of the replaced material towards human body. Biomaterials are commonly used to replace any of the traumatized or degenerated tissues or organs. All materials cannot be replaced by traumatized organ of the body, the material should poses good characteristics towards bio compatibility and host response. Bio compatibility and host response both refers to response of host organism towards the replaced materials.
This is usually practiced in preparing inorganic–organic hybrid materials through physical blending at ambient temperature or elevated temperature [18, 19]. 126.96.36.199 Chemically-Bound-Hybridized Materials Chemically-bound hybridized materials contain special combination and mixture of atoms and molecules at molecular level. There are some hybrid materials with excellent properties and performance due to some particular chemical-bonds at the interface between the component materials. Such materials are produced under hybridization through chemical modification where a new chemical group is introduced into the molecular chain of materials to produce new chemically-hybridized materials 188.8.131.52 Functionally-Hybridized Materials Functionally hybridized materials as the materials that have harmonizing function and utilization of interface functions, which results in new functions or super functions. As such, structurally-hybridized materials and chemically-bound-hybridized materials which combine the functions or utilize the interface functions of the component materials can be considered as functionally-hybridized material
They must be isolated from natural sources or synthetically designed to interact with specific microbial structures and then screened for efficiency and toxicity. To be effective new antimicrobial compounds must work at novel sites in bacterial metabolism and biosynthesis or to be structurally dissimilar to existing compounds, thus avoiding resistance factors. At present naturally occurring compounds which are structurally and functionally unique are the choice of antimicrobial agents to treat drug resistant pathogens. As it is known, application of more powerful antibiotics can lead to limited and temporary advances and eventually contribute to developing greater resistance. Resources against multidrug-resistant pathogenic infections are now
Polymer characteristics are referring to its mobility, molecular weight, tacticity, crystallinity, type of functional group present, etc. These characters are said to be very important as the process of biodegradation highly depends on them. It even depends on the soil condition as microorganisms have their own optimal growth conditions in the soil. To initiate the process of biodegradation, it is vital for the microorganism to attach to a polymers surface (which is mandatory to be hydrophilic). Once it is attached successfully, the microorganism can grow using the polymer as its carbon source.
COMPOSITES IN OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY Composite materials are multiphase materials that obtained through the artificial combination of different materials in order to attain properties that the individual components by themselves cannot attain. They are not multiphase materials in which the different phases are formed naturally by reactions, phase transformations, or other phenomena. An example is carbon fiber reinforced polymer. Composite materials should be distinguished from alloys, which can comprise two more components but are formed naturally through processes such as casting. Composite materials can be tailored for various properties by appropriately choosing their components, the proportions, distributions, morphologies, degrees of crystallinity, crystallographic textures, as well as the structure and composition of the interface between components.