8. Hardness in Water and Waste Water (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid method) Hardness is associated with the ability of water to precipitate soap and it is caused by dissolved polyvalent metallic ions. The most common polyvalent cations in fresh water are calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+). Chemically, hardness refers to the amount of Ca2+ and Mg2+ in water. This is due to the fact that contribution of other ions such as iron (Fe2+), strontium (Sr2+), aluminum (Al3+) and manganese (Mn2+) is usually negligible.
These cations have a tendency to combine with anions (negatively charged ions) in the water to form stable salts. The type of anion found in these salts has therefore been used to distinguish between the two types of hardness-carbonate and non carbonate hardness (Table2). Table 2 shows that carbonate hardness is caused by Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions combined with anion (CO3 2- or HCO3 - or OH-) to form a salt. In contrast, non-carbonate hardness forms when Ca2+ and Mg2+ combine with anything other than carbonate, bicarbonate, and hydroxide ions. Carbonate hardness is sometimes called temporary hardness because it can be removed by boiling the water.
The main reason of the axial pump is to achieve a very high volume flow rate with low head. This is very crucial for certain applications that use the hydraulic requirement like hydraulics and flood dewatering. This simple pump serves a purpose of delivering high-pressure liquid with low head, a specialized pump type different from the others in the market. The centrifugal pump operates with one or more impellers. There are many types and variation for different applications for this pump.
There is a strong negative standard of free energy from the hydrolysis. In the next step the energy that is released in breaking this bond is used to drive the synthesis of phosphoanhydrice used to create GTP nad ATP. Succinate is created in this process. It is a reversible reaction catalysed by Succlnyl-CoA synthetase. In steps six to eight is all about the regenerating of oxaloacetate.
They found that carbon dioxide needed to be activated to build hydroxybenzoic acids with alkali metal phenoxide. They came to this realization by coordinating the alkali metal with the carbon dioxide. This caused the formation of the MOPh-CO2 complex. As the carboxylation reaction proceeded, a direct carboxylation of the benzene ring with another molecule of carbon dioxide did not take place, instead, the CO2 moiety of the MOPh-CO2 complex performed an electrophilic attack on the benzene ring in the ortho and para positions. It was shown that the intramolecular conversion of the MOPh-CO2 complex was the most responsible for the products distribution of the Kolbe-Schmitt reaction.
Introduction: The melting point of a pure substance is a characteristic that is physically consistent with each specific substance. When a substance is impure, it causes the melting point to decrease and the range of the melting point to increase. In order to identify a pure substance, it must be purified in order to get an accurate melting point estimation. Purification can be done through crystallization. Crystallization is one of the simplest and most effecting ways to purify a solid.
Hy¬droxyapatite (HAp) [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] is a naturally occurring mineral in the inor¬ganic component of human bone and tooth enamel. The crystal size of HA in natural human bone is in nano range. The constit¬uent ele-ments of HA areprimarily calcium and phosphorus, with a stoichiometric Ca/P ratio of 1.67.It displays favourable properties such as bioactivity, biocompati¬bility, slow-degradation, osteoconduction, osteointegration, and osteoinduction. HAp with a Ca/P ratio of 1.67 is the main min¬eral component of biological hard issues, such as bone and teeth and it is made up of calcium and phosphorous. It is known as a bio-ceramic because of its excellent bioac¬tivity and biocompatibility.
This clearly indicated addition of H2O molecule to the drug. As the Application of nitrogen rule and proposed the presence of even nitrogen ie, C12H15NO4 (Theoretical mass 237.10) as the most probable molecular formula. Degradation product 02 is generated from the drug by simple amide hydrolysis in basic condition. Since Degradation product 02 was formed in basic, It was observed that, AN undergoes base hydrolysis. Degradation study of Product 01 using Aqueous 1N NaOH solution .The mechanism is operated by hydrolysis.
3.7 Homogeneous Catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol To investigate the redox catalytic activities of the synthesized AuNPs using the olibanum gum, we selected a well-known catalytic reaction the transformation of 4-NP to 4-AP by sodium borohydride (NaBH4) as a model reaction and the reaction was monitored using UV–visible spectroscopy. The absorption peak of 4-NP undergo red shift from 317 nm to 400 nm immediately after addition of NaBH4, corresponding change in the colour of the solution from yellow to intense yellow was observed due to the formation of 4-nitrophenolate ions under alkaline conditions. This peak at 400nm remained unaltered for many days in the absence of AuNPs. This indicates the inability of NaBH4 itself to reduce directly
Advantages of alumina • large capacity • Insoluble • Relatively inert • Available Adsorption is different from silica gel due to the strong positive field of Al3+ and the influence of basic sites which affect easily polarized compounds. Good in separation of aromatics from olefins. Application of adsorption chromatography in different chromatography technique: Affinity Chromatography Affinity Chromatography method of separating mixtures based on a highly specific biological interaction such as that between enzyme and substrate, antigen and antibody, or receptor and ligand. Affinity chromatography can be used to purify and concentrate a substance from a mixture into a buffering solution reduce the amount of a substance in mixture. Ion Exchange Chromatography: Ion Exchange Chromatography allows the separation of molecules based on their charge.