The goal of the experiment is to synthesize a bromohexane compound from 1-hexene and HBr(aq) under reflux conditions and use the silver nitrate and sodium iodide tests to determine if the product is a primary or secondary hydrocarbon. The heterogeneous reaction mixture contains 1-hexene, 48% HBr(aq), and tetrabutylammonium bromide and was heated to under reflux conditions. Heating under reflux means that the reaction mixture is heated at its boiling point so that the reaction can proceed at a faster rate. The attached reflux condenser allows volatile substances to return to the reaction flask so that no material is lost. Since alkenes are immiscible with concentrated HBr, tetrabutylammonium bromide is used as a phase-transfer catalyst.
In addition to using excess acetic acid to form the ester, the reaction can also be influenced by removing water from the reaction mixture. Based on Le Chatelier’s principle, removing a reagent from the right side of the equation will shift the reaction to the right. Disturbing the reaction equilibrium by removing water from the mixture will cause the reaction to shift to the right and establish a new equilibrium. The new equilibrium that is established after the removal of water favors the formation of the ester. 2.
The HPO4- ions messed up the equilibrium by removing Fe3+ ions from the solution (HPO42-(aq) + H2O(l) H2PO4-(aq) + OH-(aq), and Fe3+ (aq) + OH-(aq) = Fe(OH)3(s)). When the Fe3+ ion was taken away it caused the equilibrium to change to the reactants, so then it began to break apart the iron-thiocyanate complex ions. Adding NH3 into water changed to ammonium and hydroxide ions. The hydroxide ions reacted with the Fe3+ ions forming Fe(OH)3 (NH3·H2O(l) NH4+ (aq) + OH-(aq), and Fe3+ (aq) + OH-(aq) = Fe(OH)3(s)). This took away Fe3+ from the solution, causing the equilibrium to change to reactant favored.
As we know acid reacts with bubbles when combined with sodium bicarbonate. 2. Write the chemical equation for the reaction in well A6. B BoldI ItalicsU Underline Bulleted list Numbered list Superscript Subscript3 Words NaOh + AgNO3>>>>NaNO3 + AgOH 3. One of the reactions you observed resulted in this product: NaCl + H2O + CO2 (g)?
Due to water’s polar structure, ions in some compounds attract and form bonds with water molecules, forming hydrates. A hydrate is a salt that has water molecules trapped within its crystals. Every hydrate has a certain number of water molecules weakly bonded to the salt as follows: salt • number of water molecules Anhydrous salts are salts that can form hydrates but which have had all the water driven off, usually by heat. By heating the Copper (II) sulphate hydrate until its color changes from blue to white, the compound can be decomposed into CuSO4, a white crystal, and H2O gas, represented as follows: CuSO4 • xH2O(s) ←⎯→ CuSO4(s) + xH2O(g) Because of the mass conservation law and the fixed proportion of water molecules, the mole of H2O can be calculated by calculating the mass difference of the substance before and after the reaction: Mole of H2O = (Mass of substance before the reaction) (Mass
We concluded that the rate of hydrolysis of (CH3)3CCl is directly proportional to water content in the solvent mixture. Aims of experiment • Determine the rate constants for hydrolysis of (CH3)3CCl in solvent mixtures of different composition (50/50 V/V isopropanol/water and 40/60 V/V isopropanol/water) • Examine the effect of solvent mixture composition on the rate of hydrolysis of (CH3)3CCl Introduction With t-butyl chloride, (CH3)3CCl, being a tertiary halogenoalkane, it is predicted that (CH3)3CCl reacts with water in a nucleophilic substitution reaction (SN1 mechanism), where Step 1 is the rate-determining step. The reaction proceeds in a manner as shown
What is the molecular formula of this hydrate? *Answers to questions above... 1) 4.078 + 4.056 + 4.095 + 4.014 = 16.24/4 = 4.061 ±0.008 grams 2.253 + 2.256 + 2.261 + 2.249 = 9.019/4 = 2.255 ±0.012 grams 2) Mass of water = 4.061 – 2.255 = 1.806 ±0.020 grams Then convert to moles =1.806 ±0.020 / 18 g = 0.100 ±0.020 mol H2O Covert to moles of copper Sulfate =2.255 ±0.012 / 159.6 = 0.0141 ±0.012 mol CuSO4 Finally simplify those values by dividing by the smallest number =0.0141 ±0.012 / 0.0141 ±0.012 = 1 Then: 0.100 ±0.020 /0.0141 ±0.012 = 8 3) Molecular Formula= CuSO4 x 8H2O
Hydrochloric acid is a chemical used in the process of digestion and is a vital to our ongoing health and well being. The concentration of hydrochloric acid in the stomach is approximately 0.05 – 0.1 moles/litre (M). However hydrochloric acid at 18% is used in many industrial processes and has the capacity to melt steal. Aim The purpose of this experiment is to investigate how altering the concentration of hydrochloric acid, when reacting with sodium thiosulfate, can change the rate of a reaction. Hypothesis If three beakers are filled with sodium thiosulfate and differing concentration levels of hydrochloric acid then, the rate of reaction will occur quicker using a higher concentration of hydrochloric acid.
Osmosis is the flow of water through a semipermeable barrier from low to high concentration of a solvent to create balance. Salt causes an osmotic imbalance because it forms a hypertonic solution outside of cells, which causes the intracellular water to flow outward. The flow of water out of the cell causes the cell to shrink, which interferes with homeostatic processes by causing dehydration (Giuggio,2018).