Unlike in rural settings where young children are allowed to defecate in the yard or on land surrounding the household, in urban slums, the lack of improved sanitation leaves parents with limited options for disposal of children’s faeces, which are, in turn, left in common alleyways or drainage ditches. A number of researchers have documented that inadequate access to sanitation compels slum residents to use unhygienic pit latrines, polythene bags or discharging into nearby open storm drains, creating significant disease-related hazards and environmental pollution. Pollution loads from slum areas are closely associated with settlement density, number of people using each pit, and geological conditions,and have high potential to cause eutrophication of downstream water sources(Isunju et al.,
With high unemployment rates, the expansion of informal settlements and the neglect of basic human rights, one of India’s megacities, Mumbai, is a good representation of these social divisions. Incorporating analysis’s from material provide in the Development and the City course at the University of Guelph, it is believed that a significant issues is the means to which governments invests in their people. Within cities, municipal governments are often more interested in modernizing than addressing the major structural concerns mentioned above. Furthermore, social inequalities do not just expand across cities, rather this is a problem that engulf the entire nation, which Boo also points to. This can especially be seen when
The social problems that urbanization and industrialized in the late 19th century created was slums. “Forty-two men and women in a room not more than twelve feet square, and in the corner on a heap of dirty straw lay a woman with a newborn babe” (Related Document 1, pg. 275). Immigrants were living in an overcrowded tenement and having to pay high rent. They lack access to clean water for drinking, garbage and sewage system.
Dharavi, one of the four slums in Mumbai is residentially dense with 800,000 people in more than 2,000 huts (Gruber, Kirschner, Mill, Schach, Schmekel & Seligman, 2005). The living conditions there are extremely terrible. Only 18.5% of the slum population has directly piped water supply, and most rely on the shared toilets most rely on is not equipped with the proper sanitary
Immigrants who could afford the cost of living had better standards of living. However, without capital, the first stop for migrants were ‘slums’. Slum formation is a result of rapid urbanization and this holds ground for Bangalore since the population boom, associated with urbanization, creates a greater demand for housing than the urbanized area can offer. And since this demand cannot be met, people tend to live on unplanned and illegal property e.g. lakes, parks and open spaces.
We all need clean water for domestic use, drinking and swimming. The main problem that accompanies the issue of polluted water is that people are exposed to infectious diseases such as water bone and diarrhea. The world health organization estimates that more than 3 million people die every year due to infectious diseases caused by drinking polluted water. The majority of people being affected are young people of age younger than 5 years (Miller, G.T.). Surface water pollution can be solved by trying to reduce the sources as much as possible and by also treating the water to remove the pollutants from the water.
According to Japanese Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (2008), from 1939 to 2006, millions of people were influenced at least once by reduced or suspended water supply. On the other hand, water sanitation has a great impact on human’s health, which includes high percentage of harmful minerals tested in the freshwater resources and dangerous nuclear leakage from power stations. In order to offer enough amount of uncontaminated, drinkable water, the Japanese government had better increase the water supply with clean water safegurad. According to Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (2008), water supply and bulk water supply businesses, private water supply and private water supply facilities are provided in Japan to meet citizens’ needs for water so far. Those supplies are expanding continuously to ensure that all Japanese are able to get fine water (see figure 1).
2.4 LIVING CONDITION AND LIFESTYLE OF SLUM DWELLERS Living condition in slum is very poor.Slum dwellers do not have proper housing facilities,sanitation and ventilation in their houses. They lack basic services like safe drinking water, clean cooking fuel , toilet facilities etc. The conditions differ from one slum to another. In Kenya,Dakar;s slum has 82% electricity connections while the Nairobi slum has only 22% so that 77% of Nairobi slum dwellers uses kerosene for lighting ,while this percentage is very low say 55 in Dakar’s slum. (Gulyani et.
A host of environmental and social problems beset the port city of Chittagong due to mushrooming of slums, which is largely blamed on unplanned urbanization. More than two hundred slums accommodating some 10 lakh people are scattered across the city, shows a 2010 survey of Chittagong City Corporation(http://archive.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=262229).The structural conditions of those slums are one of the worst in the world. The slum people live without open space, streets, water, gas
The world is getting thirstier, today, nearly 1 billion people in the developing world do not have access to clean, safe drinking water. 97.5 percent of the earth’s water is saltwater and undrinkable, less than 1 percent of fresh water is usable, amounting to 0.01 percent of the earth’s total water. These astonishing statistics shock me that the clean water we drink every day is hard-won. Water is limited natural resources, also it is the most important thing to all living. If we do not conserve, recycle, and more efficiently use water, our environment would have serious ecological consequences, such as climate change.