As my team and I discovered a new fossil in our excavation project, the unknown site yielded the skull of a mysterious specimen. Our goal as reputable anthropologist was to analyze the specimen to the best of our ability so our team can provide the most probable and reliable taxonomic identification. In order for us to effectively interpret the results our experiment yielded, we needed to review our knowledge in human evolution. The field that uncovers the mystery of the evolution of humans is paleoanthropology, the study of human evolution through the fossil record.
Chapter six welcomes us into the skeletal system by presenting functions,types,structure, and development of bones. We are also presented the ideas of fractures and even the spine- curling snap of a broken bone which means a band aid simply won 't do! For example, Hematoma formation , Fibrocartilaginous callus, Bony callus ,and Remolding must occur to heal ,aka 3-10 weeks in a signature infested cast ,and if the break eventuated* on your arm, a complementary farmer 's tan. The Axial Skeleton makes an appearance by explaining itself as lying in the middle of the body and consisting of the skull, hyoid bone, vertebral column, thoracic cage, and middle ear bones. The complexity, physiology and delicate fashions of each member of this group is expressed.
The objective of the virtual lab on bones consisted of identifying the major bones of the human body. We had to place the major bones of the body in the correct anatomical position. The key terms included the axial skeleton which includes the skull and the bones that support it, such as, the vertebral column, ribs, and sternum. The appendicular skeleton includes the bones of the limbs and the structures that support them such as, the scapula and pelvic bones.
However, bones can be classified by shape, structure, and bone markings. Bones are categorized as sutural, irregular, short, flat, long, and sesamoid bones based on their shape (Martini et al. 180). The long bones contain a diaphysis, epiphysis and metaphysis. The diaphysis in the long bone is made of compact bone which has a medullary cavity where marrow is kept. The epiphysis of a long bone is made of spongy bone is an open region of trabecula
Temporomandibular Joint is a hinge that connects the upper jaw (bone of the skull) and lower jaw (mandible of the jaw) to one another, it is also responsible for the movement of the jaw side to side, forward, and backwards. The temporomandibular joint is comprised of the outside parts of the mandibular fossae of the temporal bone, other ligaments, and parts of the eminences and mandible. This joint is one of the most complex joints in the human body. You can see a lot of the movement of the joint if you open your mouth wide enough. Temporomandibular Joint is usually a result of issues that occur within the jaw, or surrounding muscles in the jaw.
The lower end of the humerus has two rounded knobs the lateral and medial condyles. Between the two of these is a hole that extends completely through the bone, this is called the supratrochlear foramen. The ulna and radius act as one bone and are held together firmly by ligaments and always move together. The upper end of the ulna has a hook like process that fits perfectly in the supratrochlear foramen of the humerus. On the ulna there is a ridge called the trochlear notch, this fits against and rotates between the medial and lateral condyles on the humerus.
It was also determined that prehensile tailed platyrrhines had more pronounced and convex articular surface curvatures. Greater contour curvatures on intervertebral articular surfaces are associated with an increased range of flexibility and mobility of the caudal vertebrae, benefiting prehensile primates that use their tails in a variety of complex movements. Hence, through analyses of the morphology of caudal vertebrae, specifically their articular surface area and curvature, it was concluded prehensile and non-prehensile tails could be distinguished according to these structural features. Both of these characteristics relate to effective use of the tail during locomotion. This article is useful towards my GEM as it describes differences in bone structure of the tails of prehensile and non-prehensile primates, and explains the reasons that certain variations confer advantages to prehensile tail
The Dmanisi skull 4, also known as D3444 with its mandible D3900, is one of five Homo erectus skulls discovered in Dmanisi, Georgia. Described in a publication in October 2006, it is believed to be about 1.8 million years old. Dmanisi D3444/D3900 is believed to be a Homo erectus adult female with a marked edentulous (toothless) grin. The cranium (D3444) was found first in 2002 and the mandible (D3900) was found later in 2004, immediately adjacent to the spot the cranium was found. The brain has an endocranial capacity of 650 cm.
Bone structure Spongy bone also knowns as cancellous contain red and yeallow bone marrow. Red bone marrow produces roughly 200 million of red blood cells (RBC) per a day. Yellow bone marrow contains primary fat cells. This can be transformed into red bone marrow to provide RBC if needed (Ivy Rose Holistic,n.d). The sponge is light and have low density which balance the heavier parts of bone.
• Hip bone • Sternum • Skull • Ribs • Vertebrae • Scapula • The ends of long bones Red marrow is so valuable because it is where blood stem cells are found. Bone broth rich in red marrow provides those stem cell factors which ultimately build your body’s strength and support your immune function A dash of apple cider. ; Bone is an excellent source of calcium and phosphorus, and to a lesser degree, magnesium, sodium, potassium, sulfate and fluoride In the digestion process, hydrochloric acid helps to break down food in the stomach but is also necessary to extract elemental minerals from food.
BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW 2. Clinical Background 2.1 The human spine The human spine (also referred to as vertebral column or spinal column) is a bony structure in the middle of the back starts at the base of the skull and continues to the pelvis. It consists of vertebrae (small bones) and joints (intervertebral disks) together to form a flexible and stable spinal column.