The acetabular cavity consists of the peripheral articular lunate surface and the non-articular acetabular fossa in the center. The articular surface is enlarged by a fibrocartilaginous articular labrum. The lunate surface is crescentic and medially is has the acetabular notch through which the intrascapular ligament of the femoral head emerge and joins the femoral head to the acetabular fossa.
Thoracic kyphosis (20-400), 3. Lumbar lordosis (30-500) and 4. Sacral kyphosis (not more than 400). ANATOMICAL PLANES: Coronal or frontal plane: It is a vertical imaginary line which divides the vertebral bodies into the front and back sections. The coronal plane of the spine delineates the scoliosis of spine.
Nomenclature of intervertebral disc is such that it takes the name of the vertebra cephalad to it. The disc between L4 and 5 will be called L4 disc. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is present at the level of the intervertebral foramina and it is in the confines of the foramina. Three branches arise distal to the DRG- Ventral ramus, Dorsal ramus and sinuvertebral nerve. The ventral ramus is the most prominent and most important branch and it supplies the structures ventral to the neural canal.
The menisci improve congruency between the femoral and condyles of tibia during this movement.27 Figure 8: Articular surfaces of knee joint (A- In extension, B- In flexion). EXTRACAPSULAR LIGAMENTS The ligamentum patellae is attached to the lower border of the patella superiorly and to the tibia tuberosity inferiorly. It is continuation of the central portion of the quadriceps femoris tendon.28 The cordlike lateral collateral ligament is attached superiorly to the lateral condyle of the femur and inferiorly to the head of the fibula. The tendon of the popliteus muscle is present between the lateral collateral ligament and the lateral meniscus.28 The medial collateral ligament is a flat band attached superiorly to the medial femoral condyle and inferiorly to the tibia shaft. It is also attached to the border of the medial meniscus.28 The oblique popliteal ligament is a tendon arising from the semimembranosus muscle.
Foot Bones Total 26 bones locate in three main portions of our foot: Forefoot, Mid-foot, and Hind-foot. It separates into three parts; tarsals, meta-tarsals, and Phalanges. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Calcaneus_animation01.gif Tarsal Bones Seven tarsal bones locate in two sections (hind-foot, and mid-foot) of our foot. Where, hind-foot contains two tarsal bones named talus & calcaneus; and mid-foot contains five meta-tarsal bones. [The following two are hind-foot bones]
Hind brain (Rhombincephalan) the hind brain contain the brain stem and the medulla oblongata (Myelencephalon) form by the anterior thickening of basal plate and posterior alar plate separated by sulcus in the fourth ventricle. The hind brain continues to form the spinal cord. As like cerebrum, cerebellum has fissured mass in the posterior cranial fossa attached with brain stem by three pairs of peduncles. From the base of the brain stem the 12 pairs of cranial nerves are arising. The motor nuclei of the IX, X, XI and XII cranial nerves line in the fourth ventricle is formed by the basal plate neurons.
Clinicians refer to this variation as a concha bullosa. Also, there are also instances where the middle turbinate develops in a sigmoid shape – with a superior convexity, and an inferior concavity. This condition is referred to as a paradoxical middle turbinate. The uncinate process may deviate from its typical posteroinferior course and arise in a medial fashion that obstructs the middle meatus and the ethmoid infundibulum. In cases where hypoplastic maxillary sinuses are present, lateral elevation of the uncinate process until it fuses with the medial orbital wall can impede the integrity of the orbit.
The forearm is a complex anatomical structure between the elbow and the wrist that serves an important function of the upper extremity. The forearm consists of two parallel bones, the radius and the ulna. It forms a functional unit that can be considered both as an axis and a non synovial joint (). This “joint” can be best understood in term of two “condyles”, the distal radio-ulnar joint (DRUJ) and the proximal radioulnar joint (PRUJ) (). The capsule of the elbow joint and the annular ligament stabilize the bones proximally.
The smaller and more posterior middle, superior, and supreme (if present) turbinates are outcroppings of the ethmoid bone. The supreme turbinate may be found in up to 65% of patients. The inferior turbinate is visualized by directing a nasal speculum parallel to the fl oor of the nasal cavity. The
Fifth cranial nerve (trigeminal nerve) is affected to show the episode. The feeling of stabbing pain in upper jaw and teeth and slowly radiating towards nose is due to defective function of the maxillary nerve. The nerve is the second branch of trigeminal nerve. The initiating or trigger point is the loss of sensory or motor function of the second branch of fifth cranial nerve (Richard & Sanders, 2010) The following are the cranial nerves that involve in regulation of functions of eye o Optic nerve: The sensory nerve is a second cranial nerve help in whole process of sight and vision. The nerve involves in the transmission of electrical signals from the various parts of eye to CNS (brain), then the brain send an appropriate response in the form of an image to see (the objects what we see around us).
Nonetheless, our group observed specific locations in the skull that over time, changed among species. The following methodology will include how to observe or examine the different locations that were relevant to the study. By looking for the widest part in the back of the skull the location of the maximum skull breath can be identified. The degree of postorbital constriction can be recognized by observing the space behind the brow/supraorbital ridge. The zygomatic flare can be examined by evaluating how wide is the zygomatic bone.
Nerve root compression generally happens along with herniated disc. Cervical traction could help to widen the openings to give more space to the nerves to relieve symptoms, but if chronic, a patient should get plenty of rest, wear a neck brace, and over the counter medications. Treatment for osteoarthritis can include cervical traction to help control chronic symptoms or provide relief from severe pain which comes from osteoarthritis. Also, it helps to treat facet joint inflammation, but it is important to maintain good posture along with heat and cold therapy. Patients with spondylitis, which is the most common causes of neck pain, and comes from inflammation of the vertebral joints.
The four components of the axial skeleton are: SKULL (consists of 28 bones that include the cranium, which encloses and protects the brain and facial bones). VERTEBRAL COLUMN (supports the skull and protect the spinal cord). RIBS ( 12 pairs of bow shaped bones that protect the organs in the body cavities of the trunk). STERNUM ( aka breastbone and supports the collar bones). The Appendicular skeleton consists of: PECTORAL GIRDLE (consists of two shoulder blades and two collar bones, which articulate together to allow some movement).
However, according to the Mayo Clinic page on osteoarthritis there are a number of ways to cope with this painful condition. A few modifications will have to be made in order to reduce the stress and pain on the joints affected. The most helpful treatment is taking a step in lifestyle changes some examples include light amount of weight training as well as aerobic exercise can help strengthen the muscles around the affected joint providing support. Aquatic based exercises are also helpful when managing osteoarthritis according to the American College of Rheumatology. Keeping track of what you eat will both make a patient feel better emotionally as well as keeps their weight at a moderate scale to avoid pressure and stress on the knees or hips making it more painful for them.