Hyperemesis Gravidarum

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Pregnancy outcome: Few studies have reported that nausea and vomiting in pregnancy is associated with favourable pregnancy outcome8-10. An interesting study conducted by group of investigators in 411 pregnant women about the pattern of nausea and vomiting its pregnancy outcome showed that women without nausea and vomiting had a greater proportion of non viable fetus and low birth weight infants than those who had vomiting 8. HG is said to be associated with low birthweight (LBW), preterm birth (PTB), small-forgestational-age (SGA), perinatal death and prolonged hospitalization for the new-born infant 126-129. A recent meta-analysis on hyperemesis gravidaruam and pregnancy outcomes, comprising of 13 case–control studies, 10 cohort studies and…show more content…
Therefore, hyperemesis gravidarum means "excessive vomiting of pregnant women". Hyperemesis gravidarum is seen in 1-3% of pregnant women12. Hyperemesis gravidarum is a condition diagnosed by exclusion and is mostly based on the presentation. The definition of hyperemesis gravidarum used in clinical research is, persistent vomiting, ketonuria and weight loss more than 5% of pre-pregnancy weight. There are other conditions in pregnancy with similar…show more content…
At present hyperemesis gravidarum is the third leading cause of hospitalisation due to dehydration, electrolyte imbalance and malnutrition17. Currently maternal mortality due to hyperemesis is rare. Wernicke’s encephalopathy secondary to thiamine deficiency is a rare complication of hyperemesis gravidarum. It leads to symptoms such as ataxia, ophthalmoplegia and mental confusion18. Some patients experience disorientation and inattentiveness. The disease can also lead to stupor, coma and death if not treated appropriately & promptly. Other rare but lethal maternal complications include acute renal failure, pneumomediastinum, rhabdomyolysis, coagulopathy, sialorrhoea – constant salivation (“ice-cream bucket syndrome”) and central pontine myelinolysis19-24. It may also cause Mallory-Weiss tears and esophageal rupture 121,122. Hyperemesis gravidarum is associated with increased risk of low fetal birth weight25 . Attempts to quantify NVP symptoms originated with the Rhodes scale, which was designed for the assessment of nausea and vomiting in patients

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