Usually when somebody has a heart attack, people sometimes wait a while before seeking the much needed medical attention. It is extremely important that the patients gets medical treatment as soon as possible after the occurrence of the myocardial infarction as this increases the chances of their survival. CAUSES Myocardial infarction is usually caused by a blockade in the blood supply of the heart muscles. This can occur when there is the hardening of the arterial walls, or if there is an thrombus or embolism in the blood vessels and this reduces the amount of blood that can go through. If there is a complete block, then this can cause the area where the blood vessel supplies the blood to undergo necrosis which is also known as heart attack.
Hypertension commonly known as high blood pressure is the phenomena when the blood with all its power and strength pushes through the walls of arteries as it pass through them. Arteries are responsible for carrying oxygenated blood to the body tissues from the heart. Blood pressure is linked with the speed of blood hitting through the artery walls. Blood vessels with smaller capacity also gets affected by the pressure of the blood. The swiftness blood pressure is lower when the walls of the arteries are more relaxed or opened than narrow or tight (1).
Myocardial perfusion imaging: Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is a form of functional cardiac imaging, used for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease. The underlying principle is that under conditions of stress, diseased myocardium receives less blood flow than normal myocardium. MPI is one of several types of cardiac stress test. A cardiac specific radiopharmaceutical is administered. E.g.
PI value has been considered a useful tool for accurately monitoring changes in peripheral perfusion in real time caused by certain anesthetics. An increased PI is an early indicator of the pharmacologic effect of the anesthesia, often occurring before the onset of the anesthetic effect providing the physician an early indicator of successful anesthetic administration. In the neonatal acute care setting, a low PI has been shown to be an objective indicator of severe illness. In conjunction with oxygen saturation and pulse rate, a diminished PI becomes an important indicator of a critical state of neonatal health. As such, the PI may be important to consider as a standardized, objective measure in addition to conventional subjective means of assessing the state of the neonate.
The fact that more blood is being brought from from the lungs to the muscles, this higher amount of blood can increase the level of the athlete. Side effects: Blood clot: Blood clot can cause death. Blood doping can have the same side effect as the EPO , that is blood clot. Blood clot is usually form to repair damage artery or veins. It is in a jelly like form to prevent bleeding.
Many types of heart disease can be solved or even prevented by having a healthy life style and healthy choices, Heart disease can also be called (cardio vascular disease), which is generally refers to situations in which twisted or closed blood vessels that lead to heart attacks. Chest pains or a stroke another condition is like the kind that
A pneumothorax can be caused by physical trauma to the chest wall or as a complication of a healthcare intervention which is referred to as traumatic pneumothorax. In a minority of cases the amount of air in the chest increases markedly when a one-way valve is formed by an area of damaged tissue, leading to a tension pneumothorax which leads to steadily worsening oxygen shortage and low blood pressure. Unless reversed by effective treatment, it can result in death. Diagnosis of a pneumothorax by physical examination alone can be difficult. Integrated diagnostic modalities can be used for the better detection such as chest X-ray,
 Explaination: The harder the heart works to push the blood ,the greater the force is on the arteries Blood pressure is expressed in terms of millimeter of mercury above the surrounding atmospheric pressure.Blood pressure readings have two numbers i.e top number and bottom number.The top number is called Systolic pressure.The bottom number is called Diastolic pressure.The blood flows through arteries and it delivers all necessary oxygen and nutrients the body needs to be healthy. Such a force occurs throughout the vascular system.  Systemic arterial blood pressure is most commonly called as blood pressure.However,measurement of pressures in the pulmonary vessels and venous system plays an important role in intensive care medicine.Blood pressure is influenced by the heart rate ,the amount of blood pumped by the heart and the ease with which blood travels through the body.The difference between the measured systolic and diastolic pressures is called pulse pressure.
1.1 INTRODUCTION Hypertension is the persistent increase in blood pressure above systolic of 140mmttg and diastolic of 90mmhg. (Ross and Wilson 2010). Hypertension can also be defined as a chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is elevated .High blood pressure is a leading cause of kidney disease and kidney failure. Hypertension can cause damage to the blood vessels and filters in the kidney making removal of waste products from the body difficult. (Wikipedia 2015).
The heart pumps the blood while the blood vessels deliver blood to all body parts. 6.1 Personal context The cardiovascular system ceases to perform its roles when some factors like diseases are involved. The diseases affecting this system is referred to as cardiovascular diseases or heart diseases. These heart diseases are among the major diseases with high rate of mortality and morbidity rate. The aged people are more prone to heart diseases including men.
Systolic and Diastolic Heart Failure Heart failure occurs when the heart cannot pump enough blood for the body due to a weakened or damaged heart. The heart 's pumping action moves oxygen-rich blood as it travels from the lungs to the left atrium, then on to the left ventricle, which pumps it to the rest of the body. The left ventricle supplies most of the heart 's pumping power, so it 's larger than the other chambers and essential for normal function. (American Heart Association). In left-sided or left ventricular heart failure, the left side of the heart must work harder to pump the same amount of blood.
Heart, kidneys, bladder Heart: The BNP level in W.A.’s blood was above normal. A high value of BNP in the blood may show early heart failure in people on kidney dialysis. She also has +2 pitting edema and Crackles in bilateral lower lobes and shortness of breath. As heart failure gets worse, fluid starts to build up in your lungs and other
Dopamine acts on B1 receptor in renal by increasing perfusion of blood to kidney due to vasodilation of renal vessel and able to maintain kidney function. Dopamine also has lower tendency than noradrenaline and adrenaline to cause vasoconstriction of cutaneous, renal and possibly other vessels. Dopamine also activates both dopaminergic and adrenergic receptors depending on its concentrations. It has dose dependent effect. At low concentration, dopamine cause dilation of renal, mesenteric and coronary vessels that increased blood flow to these tissue.
This means that the heart does not pump blood around the body as effectively as it should (Heart Foundation). With Audrey’s condition, blood pressure should be controlled and monitored as well as her cholesterol levels and heart rate to prevent stroke (John V Amerena, 2013) Digoxin and Warfarin medication will be given as per doctors order. 2. Hypertension means that the blood is pumping with more force than normal through the arteries, which are the vessels that carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body (Better Health Channel,
Other pharmacologic treatments include meloxicam, ibuprofen, oxaprozin and sulindac. In addition, “cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, such as celecoxib (Celebrex), have an improved safety profile for gastrointestinal adverse effects, but are costly and confer an increased cardiovascular risk” (Sinuasas, 2012, p.