Hypertension Case Study

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Section 1: Profile of Hypertension Patients

Hypertension and heart diseases: Hypertensive heart disease is the No. 1 cause of death associated with high blood pressure in patients. It refers to a group of disorders that includes heart failure, ischemic heart disease, hypertensive heart disease, and left ventricular hypertrophy (excessive thickening of the heart muscle).
Renal Hypertension: Renal hypertension, also called renovascular hypertension, is elevated blood pressure caused by kidney disease. It can usually be controlled by blood pressure drugs. Some people with renal hypertension can be helped by angioplasty, stenting, or surgery on the blood vessels of the kidney.
Diabetes and Hypertension: People with diabetes are more likely to
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Aortic blood pressure is central arterial systolic blood pressure or the pressure in the aorta; also known as the 'central blood pressure’. Central arterial pressure is a better predictor of cardiovascular risk than peripheral brachial blood pressure. Measurement of central blood pressure is useful for a diagnosis of spurious systolic hypertension in young people.
Why is it imperative to measure CAP?
• CAP has been shown to more strongly relate to vascular disease and outcome than traditional upper arm blood pressure. Cap is the pressure that the heart has to pump against to get blood to flow to the rest of the body. Higher central blood pressures mean that the heart must work harder to do its job. This can eventually lead to heart failure.
• Aortic BP also determines the pressure in the blood vessels feeding the
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In the first method, CAP is directly measured only using a pressure sensor or catheter inserted into the aorta (usually through an artery in the groin or wrist).
CAP can also be measured non-invasively by using a mathematical relationship to a peripheral pressure. The degree to which this mathematical relationship matches any individual determines the accuracy of the estimate in that subject.

CAP management

• Diet management: incorporate the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet.
• Eat more fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy foods
• Cut back on foods that are high in saturated fat, cholesterol, and trans fats
• Eat more whole-grain foods, fish, poultry, and nuts
• Limit sodium, sweets, sugary drinks, and red meats
• Reduce intake of salt
• Regular exercise
• Medication
Section 3: Treatment of CAP

CAP treatment with Ramipril based

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