In this more common form — called non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) — new blood vessels aren't growing (proliferating). When one has non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, the walls of the blood vessels in retina weaken. Tiny bulges (microaneurysms) protrude from the vessel walls of the smaller vessels, sometimes leaking fluid and blood into the retina. Larger retinal vessels can begin to dilate and become irregular in diameter, as well. Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy can progress from mild to severe, as more blood vessels become blocked.
They join together at the circle of willis at the base of the brain. Smaller arteries leave the circle and branch out to supply brain cells with oxygen and nutrients.Artery junction points may become weak causing a ballooning of the blood vessel wall to potentially form a small sac or aneurysm.Cerebral aneurysms are common but most are asymptomatic and are found incidentally at autopsy. Causes of Brain Aneurysm: Aneurysms have a variety of causes including high blood pressure and atherosclerosis, trauma, heredity and abnormal blood flow at the junction where arteries come together.There are other rare causes of aneurysms. Mycotic aneurysms are caused by infections of the artery wall. Tumors and trauma can also cause aneurysms to form.
Myocardial perfusion imaging: Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is a form of functional cardiac imaging, used for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease. The underlying principle is that under conditions of stress, diseased myocardium receives less blood flow than normal myocardium. MPI is one of several types of cardiac stress test. A cardiac specific radiopharmaceutical is administered. E.g.
ABGs showed a normal or decreased PaCo2 despite severe dyspnea and hypoxemia. Other types of blood tests can check for signs of infection or anemia. If Doctor suspects that patient have a lung infection, secretions from airway may be tested to determine the cause of the infection. 4.3.3 Heart
If there is a complete block, then this can cause the area where the blood vessel supplies the blood to undergo necrosis which is also known as heart attack. SYMPTOMS Some of the symptoms exhibited by a person undergoing heart attack can vary from one person to another as this depends if this is a severe case of MI or a mild one. - Chest pain
Diseases of the urinary tract blockages such as stones, tumors, and also causes narrowing of the kidney failure. Kidney failure can also be caused by autoimmune disorders, such as lupus erythematosus. Of the many types of disease-causing, most causes of diabetes mellitus. According to Budiman, 45 percent of sufferers of kidney failure caused by diabetes mellitus, 28 percent by high blood pressure, glomerulonephritis by 9 percent, and 18 percent of other
Class I is the minimal mesangial lupus nephritis and for patients who are classified under this usually are in remission. The worst class, Class VI (Advanced sclerosis lupus nephritis) is embodied by a gradual progressive kidney dysfunction. This complication is the one most scientists use for research as this affects the majority of Lupus patients. Other complications could include organs such as lungs, brain, intestines, and
These blood vessels usually nourish the retina. These blood vessels get blocked which causes irregular new blood vessels to form. Bleeding into the vitreous gel may occur due to these new blood vessels being weak. Retinal detachment may also occur because of these new blood vessels pulling on the retina. Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of visual impairment in middle aged people and visual loss in older people.
Over the years, the cardiac catheterization has become essential in the evaluation and treatment of cardiac disease, cardiac catheterization indication have modified from a predominantly low risk profile of patients to include complex coronary lesions and high risk clinical conditions, including acute coronary syndromes(ACS), Considering the significant changes in the profiles of patients undergoing cardiac catheterization procedures. Moreover, the complication rates of the procedure can be anticipated to show comparable changes. Most of the studies reported that, complication rates of cardiac catheterization have been restricted largely to the practice prevalent several years earlier in recent times; the scenario of cardiac catheterization
There are several explanations that may cause endometriosis; however, the causes include retrograde menstruation, genetic factors, immune system disorders, environmental causes and metaplasia. The primary’s possible cause of endometriosis is retrograde menstruation that means menstrual blood is composed of endometrial cells that must go out of the body, but it flows back through the pelvic cavity and fallopian tube. Another cause of the disease is genetic. Endometriosis is sometimes considered hereditary, passed through the genes of family members. For instance, it is more widespread in Asian women than white women, while it is less popular in African-Caribbean females.
Amyloidosis occurs mostly in people whose myeloma has the light chain components of immunoglobulins to form a sticky protein called amyloid, impairs the function of whichever organ it is in. The kidney damage due to myeloma is fatigue, nausea, vomiting there also could be no signs and could cause foamy urine. Hyperviscostly syndrome can cause bruising from the mouth, nose, headaches, confusion, sleepiness, and problems with feeling their limbs. A bone marrow sample is taken to see what stage you can be treated
Introduction to Atrial Fibrillation The most prevalent clinical arrhythmia is atrial fibrillation, which can be defined as irregular heart beats caused by uncoordinated activation of the atria. Atria are the two upper chambers of the heart. During atrial fibrillation, the cardiac muscles that make up the walls of these atrial chambers, receive disorganized activation signals. This causes them to fibrillate, which means rapid and irregular contractions. This results in inefficient pumping of blood from the atria into the ventricles, the lower two chambers.
• Lung disease is usually manifested as obstructive lung disease due to bronchiectasis. Patients often develop difficulty breathing, cough, and wheezing. • Pancreatic disease manifests as recurrent pancreatitis, abdominal pain, diabetes, and malabsorption of nutrients. • Cystic fibrosis if often identified during newborn screening programs in the United States. Some cases are missed and present during older age.
Many patients coming for regular check up are diagnosed as diabetes. The normal random blood sugar is 80 mg to 140 mg. The persistent hyperglycemia leads to many complications in the long run like neuropathy, nephropathy, CAD, foot ulcer and gangrene resulting finally in amputation of the limb. The high blood glucose causes the cell walls to become stiff and rigid, impairing the flow of blood throughout the small vessels located at the surface of the wound. This reduces the blood flow and permeability of red blood cells, which are required for the development of dermal tissue.