Disposition theory mainly focuses on enjoyment that audience gets from presented entertainment. It is about viewers’ moral judgments about presented characters of the narrative and their enjoyment from those narratives. In other words, while watching particular narrative, viewer creates relationships with presented characters, and according to the flow of events and behaviors of the characters, viewer starts taking sides, and choose bad or good characters. Then viewer wants good things to happen to the characters that viewer like, and reverse to the bad
Additionally, personality, likeability, similarity of endorser would also affect the perception of attractiveness from the consumers. Many researchers suggested that attractiveness is the first judgement that made by individuals to another. It is true because beauty will made a better first impression towards celebrity endorser and brand image. Attractive endorsers tend to be more effective in product promotion and attract consumer’s attention. Therefore, they were often featured in the mass media and print media.
Cultivation theory is a theory founded by George Gerbner that explains whether or not the audience of a television program will be affected by watching it. Ways that the audience could be affected by television viewing are by becoming more violent, more sad, or happier after viewing. Television is the use of the study for cultivation because people tend to watch more television than listen to radio or read media sources. Also, television is used for the study because it is the most accessible and many people get the same perspective from a program that they are viewing rather than listening to radio or reading a news article. Most analysis’ deal with the immediate reaction of viewers after they complete watching a television program; cultivation theory is based on a long term basis that sets it apart from other theories according to Signorielli.
11. Freud’s model of mental functioning. The idea of forces in conflict within an individual elicits thoughts, emotions, and behavior. Using my previous dynamic discussion above combined with the underlying premise of the ABC model of self-talk, where repeated thoughts become one’s beliefs that create emotions and behaviors (Burton & Raedeke, 2008), then it seems that what information one places in their minds has strength and power over their entire thought life. Therefore, when guiding a client through the process of psychotherapy, it’s important to emphasize the importance of being aware of what one consumes with their mind (i.e., what one watches on TV, what one reads, and what one listens to).
Just think of any news channel TV anchor personality and you can detect their biases in their choice of words or the way in which they report on an issue. Many reporters simply rely on “personality” rather than facts or evidence when reporting the news. Using the Toulmin method of argument is, I believe, the best way to present my research article. Toulmin uses specific vocabulary to describe his method of argument. He uses “claim, data, warrant, backing, rebuttal, and qualifiers” to explain and chart his arguments (Jones, “Finding the Good Argument OR Why Bother With Logic?” 8,9).
Gerbner states that “every impression broadcast in the television can affect the audience. Besides affecting an individual cognitive and affective, it affects a person behavioural aspect as well. Another sociologist perspective that I will use is Emile Durkheim’s functionalism (manifest, latent, and dysfunction). The manifest or main aim of creating and broadcasting soap opera is to entertain viewers. The latent or unintentional aims includes product promotions, and to bring an individual’s name to fame.
This literature review examines the many aspects of media biases and the effects it may have on a variety of different social groups and issues. According to Kellner, the study of culture is valuable because it enables one to read and interpret one’s culture critically. Kellner encourages a multiperspectival approach that includes, discussing production and political economy; engaging in textual analysis; and studying the reception and use of cultural texts. He goes on to explain that it is important to analyze cultural text within their system of production and distribution referred to as the political economy of our culture. Also, he believes that close textual reading examines the meaning of the text in not only written words, but also in visual and other non-verbal cues.
The study by Hubert & Kenning (2008) also showed that expressions of fear and danger activate a brain region that is responsible for the removal of behaviour. These studies can help companies to modify their advertisements to include elements that help the brand to be more easily remembered or assist in the retention of consumers’ attention (Lee et al., 2007; Perrachione & Perrachione, 2008; Eser et al., 2011). According to Fugate (2007), neuromarketing helps companies identify elements that are engaging in a TV ad, neurologically. Companies assess the images, phrases, sound effects and music to develop advertising campaigns that are more appealing to consumers. Ohme and Matukin (2012) say that there are three ways in which neuromarketing can assist in the development of
Gender ideology is one of popular topic which these advertisements pay more attention to explore. This essay aims to focus on how gender role is reflected in advertisements by making use of the Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) to analyze three TV adverts. The question is posed that “What is CDA”. CDA needs to be understood as both a theory and a method (Chouliaraki and Fairclough 1999: 16), in that it offers “Not only a description and interpretation of discourses in social context but also offers an explanation of why and how discourses work” (Rogers 2004:2). Most critical discourse analysts often seek to show how a text could be biased towards a particular ideology.
Television not only provides many types of programs with interesting and broad subject matter, it also serves to fulfill our needs in terms of pleasure and knowledge. Television programs can contribute positively to the education of society and people’s awareness of others. So television program has a good side and bad side, we can get entertainment and education from a television program. -Total