And what type of behavior prompts an evaluation?” As expected, both parties agreed to the necessity of psychoeducational testing in order to determine the student’s needs and instructional accommodations to allow for student success. However, the parties expressed slightly different views on the type of behaviors to prompt an evaluation. While Jennifer believes the psychoeducational testing is “primarily used for students with autism spectrum disorder” (J. Hodge, personal communication, August 28, 2015), and when the student exhibits aggressive, non-compliant behaviors that interfere with the student’s instructional progress, those behaviors warrant an assessment. However, Marisol conveyed when a student exhibits a “lack of interest, not growing academically, or incapable to adapt to changes in curriculum as easy as their peers” (M. Puterbaugh, personal communication, August 29, 2015), then the need for an evaluation or re-evaluation presents
The three mental ailments associated with ADHD are inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Living with these conditions is no easy task. Anyone of those symptoms can individually lead to not having good grades, or even losing track of a simple conversation. Put all of them together and you have a dangerous mix that in undoubtably going to lead to poor school performance and an inept social life, if the proper means are not taken. Therefore, the effectiveness outweighs the risk when it comes to this medication, which in turn makes ADHD medication a promising and efficient treatment for children with attention deficit hyperactivity
Antidepressants help children manage the anxiety and mood disorders that often come with Fragile X syndrome, stimulants such as Ritalin aid in calming the hyperactive symptoms and attention difficulties. Anti-seizure drugs are sometimes used to help battle behavior and mood problems and aggression as well as antipsychotics such as Aripiprazole. It has been shown that without
For example, less than one-half of the 2.5 million Americans aged 12 or older who abused or were dependent on opioids in 2013 received MAT with positive effects (Volkow, Frieden, Hyde, & Cha, 2014). Training on MAT needs to be expanded to providers to aid in decreasing the rate of overdose and abuse. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) provides in depth detail as to where providers can receive this certification along with information on regulations and guidelines of the program. Oversight of treatment medications used in MAT remains a multilateral system involving states, SAMHSA, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), the Department of Justice (DOJ), and DEA (Legislation, Regulations, and Guidelines,
Although children over time get used to the other effects of opioids, such as drowsiness, they never adapt to constipation. This condition causes pain with defecation. Along with painful bowel movements, children who are constipated may also experience stomach pain, moodiness, and a lack of appetite (Greenwald, 2010). Opioid drugs interact with opioid receptors located in the brain and spinal cord that control the defecation reflex, which causes constipation. Opioid drugs slow the peristaltic process, however, they increase absorption of water and electrolytes from the gut, which causes feces to become dry and hard.
“Recently, public health officials in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom have issued warnings about previously known but undisclosed risks associated with the stimulant medications used to treat ADHD” (p.3). Lehrman shown concern about drug usage in the treatment of ADHD. But there are other forms and ways of treatment for ADHD such as, creating routines, avoiding distractions, limit choices, discipline effectively, and help your children discover a talent. The author said that screenings harm children then introduces a whole new sub-topic on ADHD screening. He contradicts himself when introducing this section, although the information presents is factual it is only geared to one side.
(NICE, 2014) The ﬁrst known controlled trial study on the efﬁcacy of systemic family therapy at the Milan State University. A longitudinal prospective study was conducted to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of systemic family therapy in the treatment of patients suffering from schizophrenia, as compared to a control case sample composed of patients undergoing routine psychiatric treatment. At the end of 2 years, an improved clinical course and a better pharmacological compliance in the group of patients with systemic family therapy was shown. Hence it is vital to advocate for family psycho-education during the early phase of treatment for the patients with schizophrenia and their
As with any medication, there is the risk for potentially averse consequence, however, proponents of the use of ADHD medication argue that the benefits greatly outweigh the risk. In addition, they argue that the majority of the side effects for ADHD medication are usually minimal and when they are more severe, they impact very few individuals. Lerner and Wigal (2008) assert that approximately half of all children diagnosed with ADHD take medication and most have a positive response. In addition, many of the minor side effects that do occur when an individual first starts the medication dissipate over time, or can be managed with adjustments to dosage and timing (Lerner & Wigal, 2008). Also, the possible averse consequences of long-term stimulant medication for ADHD, which includes things like loss of appetite, temporary weight loss, and minor increases in blood pressure or heart rate, can be tracked and are clinically significant for only a minority of the patients (Lerner & Wigal,
However, the number one option that is highly chosen is antidepressant medications. Which is generally also an option that is being overprescribed instead of finding other alternatives of treatment. Cacioppo and Freberg (2013) also further discussed medication and its usage in the treatment of ADHD. Their treatment is done with medication and a behavior therapy. The most common drug name is Ritalin that I have seen several children on the medication.
al., 2003,p.375). Previous studies have shown lower rCBF baseline in depressed patients as in healthy individuals. Davies, et. al. identifies that this is “the first study that confirms changes in cerebral blood flow and the effects of treatment with venlafaxine” (2003, p.