Excessive prolactin levels result to excessive production of breast milk or obstruct with fertility. Should treatment is required medication as a dopamine agonist can efficiently contract the tumor and lower the production of prolactin. Infrequently, prolactinomas do not react well to the medication in such cases, possible surgery, exposing radiation, or both may be required.
This disease is an autoimmune disease which means that the immune system of the body creates antibodies against the body’s thyroid gland as it is a foreign tissue. The cause of this autoimmune attack is still unknown but scientists are still working on it but some scientists say that this disease somehow associated with the other autoimmune conditions like type 1 diabetes or celiac disease. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis occurs in adulthood and it mostly occurs in women, it occurs 5-10 times more in women than men. In many cases when the blood was drawn from the patients suffering from Hashimoto’s thyroiditis there were antibodies in large number which works against thyroid-specific proteins which includes thyroperoxidase and thyroglobulin. How this condition leads to the hypothyroidism?
Helicobacter pylori Cardiovascular Microbiology 212 research Supervised by: Dr.Muzaheed Abdul rasheed Zahra Dhiya Al-Ahmed 2170003019 CT | 2nd year Subtitle Page Number Introduction 3,4,5 Diagnosis 5,6 Breath Test 6 Blood Test 6 Stool Test 6 Biopsy 7 Transmission 7 Immune response 8 Symptoms 8,9,10 Treatment 10,11 Prevention 12 conclusion 12,13 References 14,15 Index Introduction Who does not have abdominal pain during childhood? predominantly, most people have this pain correspond to an infection. Many scientist and doctors count stress, increase the acidity, lifestyle, and spicy food as main causes of gastric infection while others relate it to bacteria. The first belief was the most supposed until two Australian physicians, Barry Marshall and Robin Warren before 1982 when bacterium was discovered, proved the opposite. They built a theory based on a specific type of bacteria called Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) as one of results of stomach infection and they proved it.
Determination of methotrexate and its metabolites: 1. Determination methods developed till 2000: In this era the methotrexate was being used only as anti tumor agent to treat acute leukaemia, osteosarcoma, psoriasis, sarcoidosis and wegener’s granulomatosis. Due to its toxic side effects such as skin rash, myelo suppression, renal damage and mucosal ulceration the biological fluid level of methotrexate came into existence. The side effects was only when this drug was used in higher concentration. The biological fluids used were serum, urine and cerebrospinal fluid.
Pamidronate injections on 6 monthly basis, along with analgesics, calcium and vitamin D supplements were given. Her bone pains started improving and the patient was referred to rehabilitation department for limb length discrepancy. Currently the patient is on follow-up for 6 monthly Pamidronate therapy. Discussion Fibrous dysplasia is a congenital disease process of bone in which normal fibrous connective tissue replaces the normal bone marrow.13,14Fibrous dysplasia takes four forms: monostotic involving only one bone15; polyostotic involving multiple bones16; McCune-Albright syndrome ocurring with polyostotic form where fibrous dysplasia is accompanied by pigmentation lesions on the skin and endocrine abnormalities manifesting as precocious puberty in females17,18; and a craniofacial form (CFD) involving bones of the craniofacial complex only.19 Monostotic fibrous dysplasia occurs in 75-80% of the cases, where as polyostotic fibrous dysplasia accounts for 20-25% of
Moreover, the levels of triptolide-loaded lipid emulsion in heart, lung and kidney were lower than that of the triptolide group, which would reduce the toxicity of triptolide in the above tissues. A lipid nanoparticled triptolide (a nanoformulation) can significantly increase the AUC, significantly longer tmax and significantly decreased Cmax. Triptolide levels in hepatic, ranal and testicle tissues appear to decrease in the solid lipid nanoparticle. . The triptolide-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers could prolong mean residence time, delayed tmax and decreased Cmax compared to free triptolide and solid lipid nanoparticle, respectively, which was according to the reducing subacute toxicity in male rats
Graves' disease only affects about 2-3% of the population (“About Graves’ Disease”). It's a very rare disease that is not taken as seriously as it should be by people. Graves' disease is an autoimmune thyroid disease. This disorder results in the overproduction of the thyroid hormone which is called hyperthyroidism. Graves' disease is an uncommon disease, but is usually found throughout women under the age of 40.
As for ACE inhibitors they serve to primarily relax the blood vessels. This substance will cause blood vessels to narrow and increase the blood pressure. The ACE inhibitors side effects often include lightheadedness, joint pain, or skin rashes. ACE inhibitors also have a common side effect of a really dry cough, which makes it hard for patients to speak. The third most common medication used for heart disease is Angiotensin Receptor Blockers which will help patients by lowering blood pressure and helping in preventing blood vessels from constricting (narrowing them).
Organophosphorus insecticides are important agents of self-poisoning in developing and developed countries alike. Rampant misuse of organophospharus insecticides has been found in our country. It is in this background that a study was undertaken in Burdwan Medical College and Hospital, Burdwan, on 150 adult patients who have been admitted in the Medicine wards after consuming organophosphorus insecticides or accidental exposure to organophosphorous poison. 64 patients were male and 86 patients were female. Majority of the patients (63 patients) were in the age group of 21-30 years, and the least (10 patients) were above 40 years.
ABSTRACT: Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common worldwide parasitic disease caused by an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. It is commonly transmitted to humans by accidental ingestion of oocysts voided in cat feces or tissue cyst in meat. Congenital transmission may occurs when an uninfected mother acquires primary infection during pregnancy . The acquired infection is usually asymptomatic, while congenital one may lead to abortion, stillbirth or severe abnormalities in the newborn. A total of 190 pregnant women were interviewed with questionnaire about known risk factors (age, residence and occupational status, raw vegetables and fruits intake, source of drinking of water, milk intake, frequency of meat intake,
Labetalol and Carvedilol block beta and alpha-1 receptors. By blocking alpha receptors, this adds to the blood vessel dilating effects. Some of the beta blockers have intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA), which means they mimic the effects of norepinephrine and epinephrine and cause an increase in blood pressure and heart rate. (Ogbru & Marks,
Ten participants (5 females; mean age of 26.8 ± 8.6) with unilateral NSNP were recruited from two universities. A research assistant randomly allocated each individual to 1 of 2 groups. Both Group 1: AP and Group 2: LAT obtained posterior pressures and lateral glides respectively to the most tender and restricted segment. An assistant collected baseline numeric pain rating scale (NPRS), and Neck Disability Index (NDI) at the initial session. An OMRON automatic monitor measured the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) with recording time points: (1) 5 minutes, and (2) 7 minutes after lying supine; (3) during the 1st set, (4) 5th set of one of the glides, (5) 2 minutes after time point #4, and (6) 4 minutes after time point #4.