Hypovolemic Shock Research Paper

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Hypovolemic shock is an emergency condition in which severe blood or fluid loss makes the heart unable to pump enough blood to the body. This type of shock can cause many organs to stop working. Hypovolemic shock refers to a medical or surgical condition in which rapid fluid loss results in multiple organ failure due to inadequate circulating volume and subsequent inadequate perfusion. Endothelium plays a critical role in vascular physiological, pathophysiological, and reparative processes. The functions of the endothelium are highly altered following hypovolemic shock due to ischemia of the endothelial cells and by reperfusion due to resuscitation with fluids. Due to oxygen deprivation, endothelial cell apoptosis is induced following hypovolemic…show more content…
In 1992, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported an ectopic pregnancy rate of 19.8 per 1,000 pregnancies compared with a rate of 3.7 per 1,000 pregnancies in 1980. Lipscomb GH, et al (2000).Although early diagnosis and modern management techniques have contributed to a marked decline in mortality, ectopic pregnancy remains one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality as cited by Dorfman SF, Grimes DA, Cates W Jr, et al (2008).Undiagnosed ectopic pregnancy can result in rupture of the fallopian tube with intra-abdominal bleeding, leading to haemorrhagic shock and death. The most common manifestations of ruptured ectopic pregnancy are abdominal pain, light headedness, and vaginal bleeding, which collectively can be of moderate sensitivity but low specificity. The first essential branch point in the majority of guidelines for the management of ectopic pregnancy includes a sensitive qualitative urine β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) assay. A negative test result is used to exclude the diagnosis of pregnancy and thereby a possible ectopic gestation. Kingdom JC, Kelly T, MacLean AB, et al (2001). The following case is a rare emergency department presentation of a patient with hemorrhagic shock caused by ruptured ectopic pregnancy in the setting of a repeatedly negative urine pregnancy test result and a very low quantitative β-hCG

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