Figure.12: The complex structure of all the subunits of gamma-secretase . The Ramachandran plot analysis of the gamma protein structure is finished for the favoured region, allowed region and also the outlier regions. The tertiary structure of the gamma-secretase is being predicted with generally number of residues in the favoured region in Ramachandran plot. The residue in favoured region and also the allowed regions are found to be 91.40 % and 6.0 % of the total residues respectively. This show good interaction of subunit structures to form the complex structure of γ-secretase.
It may limit the application of the PS cyclization as a chemical ligation method for peptides with N-terminal aromatic residue and peptides with aldehyde residue at C-terminal(40). 7. Pictet-spengler reaction for protein chemical modification= proteins are having aldehyde and ketone groups in their structures. So proteins are taken as a substrate and the pictet-spengler reaction is performed for making modification in the chemical nature of the proteins. P. agarwal and co-workers work for protein chemical modification by conducting a pictet-spengler reaction between aldehydes and alkoxyamines.
What part do the three seeds experiment? A,Confounding variables B.Independent variables C.Control variables D.Dependent variables 40. Iodine directly helps which of the following glands to function properly? A.Pancreas B.Thyroid C.Adrenal D.Pituitary 41. Genes are made of which of the followings types of sequences that code for one or more proteins?
Actin and myosin are proteins that involved in muscle contraction and movement. Haemoglobin is a protein that transports oxygen through the blood. For protection, there are immunoglobulins. Immunoglobins are glycoprotein molecules that are produced by plasma cells. It functions as antibodies.
Elevated low-density lipoproteins or LDL cholesterol is strongly associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events.48 The majority of the cholesterol in the blood is contained in low-density lipoprotein which transports cholesterol from the liver to nerve tissues, cell membranes, and other cells for metabolic purposes. The cholesterol in atherosclerotic plague is derived mainly from excess LDL cholesterol. High-density lipoprotein is believed to function as a retrieval service, removing cholesterol from the circulation to the liver for excretion.48 For this reason, HDL is often referred to as the “healthy” or “good” cholesterol. Accumulation of more and more fatty substances in the walls of the arteries result in stenosis (occlusion) of the lumen of the blood vessel that decreases the blood flow volume. The rough surface created by atherosclerotic plague increases the probability of a thrombosis because the platelets are designed to aggregate or attach to the rough surfaces.
High blood pressure (hypertension) is defined as having a systolic reading equal to, or more than 140mmHg and a diastolic reading equal to, or more 90mmHg. Hypertension can be caused by stress, medication (steroids), obesity, diet, alcohol, smoking and hereditary factors. The renal system works with the circulation system to remove waste products and fluid from the body. Blood pressure rises if the volume of blood increases, due to fluid retention in the body or from disease of the kidneys. The effects of hypertension include angina, heart attack, heart failure, stroke, kidney failure and peripheral arterial disease (poor circulation in the
Which organ is responsible for regulation of blood glucose levels in humans? Name two hormones that this organ secretes to regulate blood glucose levels. The organ which has a responsibility for blood glucose levels’ regulation is pancreas. It produces two important hormones which control the level of glucose: glucagon and insulin. Cell clusters in this organ are named by pancreatic islets.
It has also been found that H2S can produce other hypotensive effects such as regulating plasma renin levels (Lu et al., 2010) and inhibiting angiotensin converting enzyme activity in endothelial cells (Laggner et al., 2007). H2S is also involved in reducing angiotensin II production and inhibiting bradykinin degradation, thus maintaining blood pressure (Laggner et al., 2007). H2S also plays a role in the regulation of renal function. It increases renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate and urinary sodium and potassium secretion, hence regulating blood pressure (Hart,
Hepcidin has been shown to have its main role in iron homeostasis, as it regulates transmembrane iron transport. It binds to the cell surface receptor, ferroportin, which is then internalized and digested by lysosomes. Ferroportin enables iron flux from enterocytes, hepatocytes, and macrophages into blood. Hence, the decrease in ferroportin levels in enterocytes due to hepcidin action leads to decreased iron absorption in hepatocytes
INTRODUCTION Graves’ disease is an autoimmune disorder affecting the thyroid gland. It is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. Thyroid’s secretion of thyroid hormones [Triiodothyronine(T3) and Thyroxine(T4)] is regulated by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), which is released by the pituitary gland. These hormones regulate the body’s metabolic rate, heart function, brain development, bone maintenance and etc. In Graves’ disease, the immune system creates autoantibodies that mimic the function of TSH and stimulate production of more thyroid hormones.
Caldesmon 1 is a gene that is located on Chromosome 7: 134.74 – 134.97 Mb which encodes a calmodulin binding protein. (15) The products of CALD1 such as Calmodulin- and actin-binding proteins play an essential role in the regulation of smooth muscle and nonmuscle contraction. (16) CALD1 inhibits ATPase activity of myosin in smooth muscle like calponin. Caldesmon (CaD) is an actin-linked regulatory protein found in smooth muscle and non-muscle cells. It binds and stabilizes actin filaments, as well as regulating actin-myosin interaction in a calcium (Ca2+)/calmodulin (CaM)- and/or phosphorylation-dependent manner.
1. How does DNA encode information? DNA is a double-stranded helix composed of a phosphate backbone and deoxyribose, and encodes information by the sequence of its nucleotide bases, which are composed of adenine, thiamine, guanine and cytosine. DNA undergoes transcription, which produces single-stranded mRNA, which uses uracil in place of thiamine. Next step is translation, in which the RNA becomes a protein, which then can act as structural units or enzymes.