Researchers and scientists are planning on developing red blood cells that will be able to hold 200% more oxygen the natural ones can and turn a regular human being into a superhuman. To make the dream of becoming a superhuman come true, the artificial cells need to contain reactive oxygen, an isotope of the natural oxygen, which once inside the human body it leads to “oxidative stress, activation of signaling pathways, and apoptosis” (Gwinn). The oxygen isotope inside the nanobot might be capable of providing super strengths to humans but once the body intakes these oxygen molecules it will combine with the proteins that usually combine with the regular oxygen and change the shape of the protein molecules. Entirely changing the proteins, causing major catastrophes inside the body such as cell deaths, and toxification. Another major consequence in using nanotechnology in the medical field, especially veterinary is the “toxic pulmonary responses in animals,” because of the diverse anatomy and physiology that they possess their bodies react completely different to this technology compared to the human body (Gwinn).
Oxidative Phosphorylation is the metabolic pathway in which mitochondria use their structure, enzymes, and energy released by the oxidation of nutrients to create ATP. If cells become oxygen deficient, the condition known as hypoxia (no oxygen) occurs. This condition can be due to abnormally acidic blood or a lack of critical enzymes necessary for releasing oxygen from red blood cells, so when this oxidative cycle is oxygen deficient, it can’t produce the quantity nor quality of ATP necessary for normal cellular functioning. “Oxygen is alkaline forming in the blood, while carbon dioxide which is produced as a by-product of the oxidation process is acid forming.
Introduction Toxic Shock Syndrome is known as TSS. Toxic shock syndrome is a rare disease; however, when the disease is contracted it can be deadly. Nearly 50% of those diagnosed with the disease will face deadly symptoms. Toxic shock syndrome is often associated with women wearing tampons for too long. However, there are many causes of toxic shock syndrome.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a multi-faceted injury and is considered the leading cause of ailment in soldiers and pedestrians. During injury, a surge in ROS facilitates a vicious cycle that accelerates mitochondrial damage, excitotoxicity, lipid peroxidation, and inflammation. Further, mitochondrial targeting strategies in TBI have been increasingly studied as their maintenance will potentially preserve brain function. Melatonin is one such mitochondrial targeted strategy. Melatonin is synthesized naturally with in the body. Melatonin acts as the bodies sleep and wake system, that allows it to redirect electrons to the mitochondrial ETC, thereby enhancing ATP production and promoting cell survival. In bypassing complex I-III activity, Melatonin reduces ROS production from the mitochondrial ETC, which has the potential to minimize ischemic and reperfusion injury. TBI was induced over the S1 region of the cortex in male Sprague
In the presence of SIRT6, expression of lactate dehydrogenase, triose phosphate isomerase (Tpi), aldolase, Glut1, phosphofructokinase-1 (Pfk-1), and Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase genes (Pdk1 and Pdk4) is silenced. SIRT6 also interacts with Hypoxia Inducible Transcription factor 1a (Hif1a), another important glycolytic regulator and key mediator in cell adaptation to stress. Hif1a modulates multiple genes to activate glycolysis and repress mitochondrial respiration. (Zhong, D'Urso, et all, 2010)
Additionally, other environmental toxins may be present, but were not detected due to the selective and highly specific nature of the assay used. Methods that affected toxin degradation or loss, however, should render findings more conservative, meaning the frequency and level of toxins present may have been higher in animals at time of death than determined in this
Burn patients needs are to make sure that they are intaking an increase amount of fluids and calories. Burns increase the patients energy requirements due to the fact that it increases their resting energy expenditure. With an increase in resting energy expenditure burn patients often lose weight due to lack of calorie intake. Burn patients should not lose more than 10% of their usual body weight. Of the calories that the burn patients are intaking it is important to make sure that they are increasing their carbohydrate, lipid and protein needs. Carbohydrates are important since the glucose is the main source for macrophages, fibroblasts, etc in the burned area as well as an increase in plasma clearance of glucose. Proteins are important since
If the body has a lack of oxygen some very severe things may occur. These things include stroke and disruption in growth. In the Aplastic anemia, the body is lacking in more than just red blood cells. In this type of anemia, the body lacks in white blood cells and platelets. The people who are most at risk for this type of anemia are people who are taking chemotherapy
Many people in this world has some sort of different type of sexual affliction that they gain excitement and taking it to the limit. Autoerotic asphyxiation, or AEA for short terms, is defined as a sexual practice in which an individual restricts oxygen to the brain by choking themselves or hanging themselves to gain sexual arousal. According to pediatrics.aappublications.org the annual death yearly is from 250 to 1200 deaths in the United States. It was first used as a treatment for people who have erectile dysfunctions back in the early 17th century when it began to be documented. When individuals were hanged during the 17th century the crowd noticed that the victim had an erection while being hanged or even after they were already dead some
2) Free Radicals: an injury by free radicals such as the reactive oxygen species, also known as oxidative stress (Huether & McCance, 2012, p. 66). This is an uncharged atom that makes the molecule unstable. In order to become stabilized, it needs to either get an electron or give up its electron. By doing this, it forms chemical bonds with protein,
ABSTRACT A pneumothorax is a life threatening disease that results in a restrictive lung disorder. This condition is associated with atelectasis, chest wall expansion, and a decrease in cardiac venous return. Often caused by smoking, a pneumothorax can be detected from pulmonary function testings, arterial blood gas interpretations, and chest radiological findings.
Cardiogenic shock is associated with inadequate tissue perfusion that can cause cardiac failure, usually causing acute myocardial infarctions .RG is a 68-year-old man that has been admitted to the ICU after undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. He has been diagnosed with history of ischaemic heart disease with two previous myocardial infarctions, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia which he has been on maintenance therapy. He has been administered with dopamine at 3 mcg/kg/minute and titrated to 8 mcg/kg/minute during the next 2 hours . However, the doctor in charge suggested to replace dopamine with dobutamine as RG has history of myocardial infarction.
Toxic shock syndrome toxin causes rash, diarrhea, and shock in humans. The last virulent factor is the alpha toxin. This makes holes in the host cell membrane. S. aureus causes a number of medical conditions and is not rare or uncommon to the human population or medical knowledge. (Nester, Allen & Salm, 2012, pgs.