Besides that, it also needs to highlight the benefits of altruistic behavior (Liu, 2007). In the context of altruistic, altruistic employees put others’ importance forward with their own, go beyond the requirement of duty and associate with ethical achievement stated by (Zhang, Zheng, & Wei, 2009). Moreover, leaders tend to act more altruistically towards other employees because they can gain benefit because having a good reputation in the organization, (Bereczkei, Birkas, & Kerekes,
The success of this style purely depends on variables, context, the quality of the followers, as well as the leader’s ability to adapt to the situation. A study conducted by Fred Fiedler (1970s) with the intention of answering the question ‘What is it about leadership behaviour that leads to effective group working’ i.e. how well the group performs at the given task. He identified two styles: ‘Relationship-motivated’ and ‘Task-motivated’ leaders. ‘Relationship-motivated’ leaders obtain satisfaction through good relationships with others, encouraging their teammates etc., whereas ‘task-motivated’ leaders put emphasis on task completion.
Precisely how this is carried out can significantly affect the outcome. Furthermore, when leaders offer the right rewards that is reward that are valued, fair, and in line with what they can deliver like reward power is effective. In addition, being true to one’s word and using rewards in a non-manipulative fashion is also essential. The over use reward power by a leader may drive followers to view the relationship in purely transactional terms (JRP & Raven 1959). For example in Yahoo’s leader case study is, “One platform Yahoo utilizes to reward and recognize its employees is a program known as Yahoo Bravo.
Also, the level of credibility directly influences the effectiveness of verbal persuasion; where there is more credibility; there will be a greater influence. In the example above, a pep talk by a manager who has an established, respectable position would have a stronger influence than that of a newly hired manager. Although verbal persuasion is also likely to be a weaker source of self-efficacy beliefs than performance outcomes, it is widely used because of its ease and ready availability (Redmond, 2010). In fact, it is usually easier to weaken self efficacy beliefs through negative appraisals than to strengthen such beliefs through positive
Effect of E-business and on firm’s Supply Chain Introduction E-business is computing and communication through internet which has enabled a business to execute front end backend processes of a business. In today’s scenario it has become a key enabler to drive the supply chain integration. Business can use internet to • Gain global visibility across their extended network of trading partners • Help them respond quickly to a range of variables from customer demand to shortages of resources. By adopting e-business methods in the supply chain pattern we can achieve goals of reduced cost increased flexibility, faster response times more efficiently and effectively. In the past decade, electronic business has increased demand and attention from
Leadership research has mostly focused on analyzing as to which traits, behaviours and styles of a leader are more effective or less effective with regard to achievement of individual and organizational goals. Positive leadership styles are reported to facilitate the flourishing of positive cognitive, affective and behavioral aspects of employee attitudes, thus positively impacting the overall productivity, efficiency and effectiveness of the employees as well as the organization (Fineman, 1996; Fredrickson, 1998; Seligman, 2002; Staw, Sutton and Pellod, 1994). The negative leadership styles may also seem to achieve the organizational goals and help the organization obtain a competitive advantage, viz-a-viz its competitors but it is not without negative repercussions for the individuals and for the organizations in the long run. Most of these *Professor, MAIMS, Maharaja Agrasen Institute of Management Studies repercussions manifest themselves in the form of low esteem, high frustration, stress reactions and helplessness among employees which gradually lead to apathy, withdrawal, work alienation, decreased performance, low job satisfaction, low organizational commitment, and high turnover etc. Leaders portraying a wide range of counter-productive behaviors may actively sabotage their follower’s motivation and well being as well as organization’s tasks, goals and effectiveness (Einarsen et al., 2002).
This theory is useful in understanding organizational design and workflow when issues exist with work procedures. SDT differs from ART in that SDT uses the concepts of autonomous and controlled types of motivation to predict effective performance (Gagne and Deci,
Conscientiousness was the strongest trait that related to OCB (Judge, Higgins, Thoresen, Barrick, (1999). It shows that people who are reliable and hard-working have a better chance of being promoted at their work place. Also, people who are more outgoing, sociable and confident are more likely to be efficient managers. Also, personality assessments are helpful in selecting people for management roles. Such tests measure a person’s mental ability and give the employer a better opinion about the job
Subordinates are trained through the process of delegation and it also builds their morale by providing ample opportunities for executive’s development. This opportunity also stimulates subordinates to perform their duties well as it has a tonic effect on their psychology. Delegation can be one of management’s best techniques because of the satisfaction and motivation it gives workers as it helps better their performance and it also maintains a health relationship between the manager and his subordinates by clearly defining the authority and I responsibility of his subordinate. Through delegation, decisions and task assignment can be achieved faster than it would have been and it eliminates cumbersome information system as it confers satisfaction for man’s demand of responsibility and recognition and gives the opportunity to exercise
Having discussed how the various strategies of downsizing can be implemented, attention now turns to discussing the advantages that can be derived from consulting with employees about the downsizing process. Research has shown that consultation, employee involvement and interactive communication can help ease the implementation of the downsizing process (Appelbaum et al., 2003). Cameron et al. (1991) suggested that the most effective strategies for downsizing were those that were actually recommended and designed by the employees themselves. Mishra et al.