Philip Rieff aims in developing adequate sociological theory by analyzing cultural change. Cultures’ notions, therapy, morality, religion and all of these have been reviewed. Now let’s take a look at how accurate Rieff in describing these basic concepts and their sociological interrelations in Triumph of the Therapeutic. Rieff reacts against approaches in social theory in which, he thinks, our view of these interrelations is blurred. One main example is the reductive way religion is commonly thought of in social theory.
Early in his career he received an idealist philosophy of the type inclined by Hegel, and also had Christian interests. In the order of the turn of the century he turned in the direction of a more scientific approach to philosophy, inclined by Darwin and by James 's Principles of Psychology. Approximately this time Dewey also dropped his loyalty to Christianity. Dewey came to refuse all supernatural forms of religion, and did not share James 's sympathy for mystical ideas, but he continued to see value in some kinds of religious experience . The scientifically oriented philosophy Dewey developed after 1900 was initially quite similar to James 's pragmatism, and some of this work inclined and was approved by James.
The barriers between science and religion have been slowly breaking, with many scientists also being religious. They still have their beliefs, such as believing God is responsible for the creation of the universe, however they aim to explore and understand God's creation. This is shown with Isaac Newton, who is famous for discovering the laws of gravitation, which lay the foundation for the beginning of physics. He however stated that he was discovering God’s laws when discovering the gravitational laws. Therefore without the belief in God, Newton may have never discovered the gravitational laws as he wanted to know more about his creator, to get closer to him, to understand him.
Regardless of the flaws in his model of knowledge, knowledge as an intellectual property is not practical. The significance of his knowledge seems minute as it feels unreal to a real and practical world which seeks practical knowledge. Knowledge needs to be able to be applied in order for it to be useful, as knowledge alone has no virtue. Knowledge must go beyond just merely being a physiological phenomenon, it must have a social, environmental, as well as an ethical context. Otherwise knowledge is self-indulgent and self-serving.
Aldous Huxley’s novel, Brave New World, brings forth countless themes that leave his readers occupied with the thought of a foreseeable utopian future. However, a topic well worth noticing is that of Huxley’s own envisions with his novel, showing how the evolvement of science and technology has affected the individual person. In the foreword to his novel, Huxley states, “The theme of Brave New World is not the advancement of science as such; it is the advancement of science as it affects individuals”. The novel Brave New World incorporates a great deal of themes and concepts within it, however, the most prevailing theme in BNW is science as it affects individuals. In BNW we see how science has truly managed to replace the traditional family
The Scientific Revolution made people doubt things that were customs, thoughts and ideas that were passed on from generations to generations which is a reason why they caused conflicts with religion. However, it did not have a setback for what the Scientific Revolution and its impact on Europe in the following
David Hume was an empiricist, he did not believe in innate ideas. His writings were based off of taking Locke’s empiricism a step further, Hume attempts to use the scientific method to study human nature. To expand on this, he thought we are all born Tabula rasa, meaning a blank slate. In acquiring knowledge, or building upon this blank slate, the source of all ideas and concepts come from previous experiences. We have what he refers to as “simple” ideas,” such as the color red or the shape of a circle.
Positivism holds the principles of both inductive and deductive which mean that the latter tests hypotheses and the former gathers knowledge that is reached through gathering of evidence. It relies on scientific facts drawn from experimentation and facts that can be quantified and gives meaning to the dynamics in the social world. It holds the principle of both deductive and inductive which implies that the latter tested hypotheses and the former collects knowledge which is arrived by collecting facts. Further, positivism underpins the central principle of value laden free which is not subjective. Positivism postulates objectivism (Bryman 2002).
He helped I the establishment on sociology as a new academic deciplain ,he also wrote about the effect of laws religion education forces on social integration and last with the practical implication of scientific knowledge. He main themes of work are He recognized that society exist beyond yourself. Society is more than th individual who compose it. 1. He elaborated society on the basis of scientific way.
Functionalists acknowledge that it is critical as religious institutions satisfy functions that society requirements for survival, making individual models of behavior that are gainful for the social balance. Religion is additionally seen as an accommodating measure between a person as an element of society and society in general. Functional methodology permits people to have diverse levels of religious involvement. In modern society religion has extended its influence from the church surroundings to ordinary life, which implies that exercises already random to religion all of a sudden get to be connected with it in the general population's psyches. Religion helps people to characterize their role in society, giving them the sentiment security and commonality with different people in a sure gathering.