How is ice cream made? Why does the ice melt so much? What energy conversions are used in the making of ice cream? To answer these questions a person must understand that there is much physics behind the process of making ice cream. Not only is it delicious but holds the secret to understanding many chemical and physical processes in science.
I. Introduction This experiment uses calorimetry to measure the specific heat of a metal. Calorimetry is used to observe and measure heat flow between two substances. The heat flow is measured as it travels from a higher temperature to a lower one. Specific heat is an amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of anything one degree Celsius.
Thermodynamics: Thermal physics By:Guled Elmi Teacher: Mr.Ali Kammar 1.1 Introduction to Thermodynamics: Thermodynamics is the branch of physical science that deals with the relations between heat and other forms of energy (such as mechanical, electrical, or chemical energy), and, by extension, of the relationships between all forms of energy. The first law states maintain energy: energy can be stored in the system on the internal energy or kinetic energy form, and can be exchanged with the outside world in the form of work or heat. First law of Thermodynamics: Increase in internal energy = Energy supplied by heating +energy supplied by doing work
HEAT, WORK AND EFFICIENCY Thermodynamics, from the Greek word thermos, meaning heat and dynamikos, meaning power, deals with the form of energy and its transformation to do mechanical work. It also explains how is work related to heat and what does heat do with the object. During the energy-work transformation, a machine is needed, as a device or converter, to obtain work output, however, machines are never 100-percent efficient. This chapter tackles, Thermodynamics, which describes the basic functions and principles of heat engines as heat converter and their work output efficiencies. Content Standard Demonstrate understanding of the relationship among heat, work, and efficency Performance Standard Analyze how power
This internship has not as much advanced my knowledge of chemical engineering as it has given me an exposure to independent research - how to plan your own experiments, what are the essential questions to be asked of every experiment and how to analyse its results. The hands-on experience of working with new machines and setting up systems of my own was something I cherish to this
Below shows the energy profile diagram for an endothermic reaction. Graph 1.2: Energy profile diagram for an endothermic reaction ￼￼￼￼￼￼Ea reactant product ￼￼￼￼Progress of reaction In this experiment, NaCl will be used. The dissociation equation is given as: NaCl(s)!Na+(aq) + Cl–1(aq) RESEARCH QUESTION What is the enthalpy change of solution where a constant mass of 5g of sodium chloride is added to a constant volume of 100 cm3 of water by recording the change in temperature over time? HYPOTHESIS The enthalpy change would be endothermic. TABLE OF VARIABLES ￼￼￼Independent Variable ￼￼￼￼￼￼￼Method of measurement ￼￼￼￼Time ￼￼￼￼A stopwatch is used to take time for each varied temperature reading.
After finding out that the times were quite different, it can be assumed that the different methods of study differed between the 50 teenagers in the sample. Analysis: The overall experiment showed good results. The numbers did not vary a lot were close to the mean, which was 5 hours of study. They were some outliers both at the top and the bottom, which show that some teenagers different attitudes of frozen yogurt. Conclusion The experiment was successful and all the information that were expected to be extracted were extracted.
I must admit that my interest for thermal science was not first aroused from academic textbook. From my younger days, I was very enthusiastic about cars. I was curious to know what happens inside the engine that can provide the car so much power to run on, or how an engine remains cool after burning so much fuel! During my high school days, one day when I was surfing the internet, I found a video about internal combustion engine and its different systems. I came to know about Otto Cycle - how an engine transforms chemical energy into mechanical through combustion.