Iceberg Metaphors

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The iceberg metaphor is used by anthropologists in their trials to contemplate the nature of culture. Culture resembles an iceberg as it has a visible part above the surface (certain characteristics), and an invisible part below the surface (a huge base of values, approaches, and expectations that strongly affect decision making , conflicts, relationships, and other aspects of international business. Usually, we are accustomed to our peculiarities, but we are unaware of a huge part of our cultural makeup that subsists below the surface (Cavusgil, Knight, Riesenberger, Rammal, & Rose, 2014). According to the iceberg concept of culture, there exist 3 levels of awareness; high culture (fine arts, drama, literature, classical music) representing the cultural makeup that is visible, folk culture (humor, religion, etiquette, folk dancing, popular music, cooking, dress, courtship practice) representing the cultural makeup that we are aware of, and deep culture (family relationships, gender roles, nonverbal communication, eye behavior, method of problem solving) representing the cultural makeup that we are unaware of (Cavusgil et al., 2014). The dimensions of culture can be categorized into subjective dimensions and objective dimensions. The subjective dimensions comprise customs and manners, perception of time, awareness of space, religion, deal versus relationship orientation, and attitudes and principles. The objective dimensions include language, material productions, symbolic
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