2.6.1. Grammatical Competence Scarcella and Oxford (1992) discussed that grammatical competence is an overall segment that comprises of information of grammar, vocabulary, and sounds of letters and syllables, articulation of words, intonation, and stress. To comprehend sense, EFL learners need enough information of words and sentences: that is, they should make sense of how words are broken into various sounds, and how sentences are stressed in specific manners. In this way, grammatical competence assists speakers to utilize and comprehend English language structures precisely what's more, quickly, which helps their fluency (Richards and Renandya, 2002). 2.6.2.
For clarity and emphasis, this study is anchored on Canale and Swain’s (1987) communicative competence theory. According to Canale and Swain (1987), there is a need of communicative competence as a synthesis of an underlying system of knowledge and skill needed for communication. In their concept of communicative competence, ‘knowledge’ refers to the conscious or unconscious knowledge of an individual about language and about other aspects of language use. According to them, there are three types of knowledge: knowledge of underlying grammatical principles, knowledge of how to use language in a social context in order to fulfill communicative functions and knowledge of how to combine utterances and communicative functions with respect to discourse
This approach to language teaching according to David Nunan is characterized by the following features: 1. An emphasis on learning to communicate through interaction in the target language. 2. To introduction of authentic texts into learning situation. 3.
Improving skill in English grammar will not only help people to create their sentences correctly but will also make it easier for them to develop their communication skills in both written and spoken English. According to the Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary first edition (2003), grammar is defined as the use of the rules on how words transform to create new sentences. Grammar, as a set of rules for choosing words and putting words together to make sense, plays a significant role in teaching English as a language because without grammar, there is no language. Also, it is difficult
Mart proposed that ‘Comprehensibility’ and ‘Acceptability’ are the main purposes of teaching grammar. In this case, comprehensibility is emphasizing on the fluency of the language, which is the ability to deliver messages to another party. On the other hand, acceptability refers to the accuracy of using English Language is highlighting the societal view towards English users with different levels of proficiency. From this, it could be seen that Mart did not only put his focus of the academic usage of grammar but also discuss the importance of grammar based on societal aspects. Furthermore, Mark also quoted a criticism on the usage of traditional method, which is Present, Practice and Produce (PPP), failed to educate learners on the application of grammar in communication.
A conceptual review of what has been understood as didactic materials is necessary because it allows rethinking common sense assumptions about the role and importance didactic materials have. In the case of traditional conceptions, teaching materials tend to be considered as instruments to access the target language. They are a means of dealing with grammar, syntax, phonetics, and cultural matters, among others. Conceiving teaching materials as instruments is an idea supported by theories related to input. "A teaching material is considered as anything which is used by teachers or learners to facilitate the learning of a language.
The type of task used in instruction may positively influence learners’ performance. Hence, the curriculum or course designer tries to create tasks that foster a language-learning context in which the learners can be involved and supported in their efforts to communicate fluently and effectively (Ellis, 2003; Willis, 1996). Among the ways to create this language learning context, task-Based Instruction (TBI) presents opportunities to employ effective and meaningful activities and thus promotes communicative language use in the language class. While some researchers suggest that the traditional methods include prescribed steps that provide teachers with a clear schedule of what they should do (Rivers, cited in Skehan, 1996). Other researchers emphasize the importance of task-based approaches to communicative instruction which leave teachers and learners free to find their own procedures to maximize communicative effectiveness (Skehane, 1996; prabhu, 1987; Long &Nunan,
Elements of speaking Harmer (2001, p.296) mentions the elements of speaking which allude to the language features that learners ought to know about. Moreover to the processes of language and information in the same time when an interlocutor collaborates with them. (As cited in, Saci.S 2013, p.16, 17). 1.2.1 Language features The following features are indispensable for a dynamic
There are characteristics identified by Richard and Rogers (1986:71) “The primary function of language is for the interaction and communication function of language. The structure of language reflects its functional and communicative uses. The primary units of language are not merely its grammatical and structural features, but categories of functional and communicative meaning as exemplified in discourse.” The Communicative Language Theory means that teaching has to be student-centered. This suits the CAPS document because (2011: 8) “Learning to use language effectively enables learners to acquire knowledge, to express their identity, feelings and ideas, to interact with others, and to manage their world. It also provides learners with a rich, powerful and deeply rooted set of images and ideas that can be used to make their world other than it is; better and clearer than it is.
2. Necessity of Grammar Teaching It is exact that putting grammar in the foreground in second language teaching, because language knowledge of grammar and vocabulary is the base of English language. Grammatical competence is one of communicative competence. Communicative competence involves knowing how to use the grammar and vocabulary of the language to achieve communicative goals, and knowing how to do this in a socially appropriate way. Communicative goals are the goals of learners’ studying English language.