3.1. Introduction Though there have been prominent works that have investigated the role of metacognitive awareness in the improvement of writing performance, there is a rising necessity to investigate this topic in the Algerian context, and more specifically in the department of English. For this objective, we designed research methodology that could lead to concrete results and mainly to answers to the major research questions and hypotheses. Writing performance could be improved only if learners are trained into thinking and reflecting about their own learning process, mainly during writing. Furthermore, evidence calls for an explicit teaching of writing strategies in an informed framework that values learning strategies (through CALLA),
His ideas were adopted later by Hutchinson and Waters (1987), who advocate a learning-centered approach in which learners’ learning needs play a vital role. If the analyst, by means of target situation analysis, tries to find out what learners do with language (Hutchinson and Waters, 1987)learning needs analysis will tell us "what the learner needs to do in order to learn" (ibid: 54). Obviously, they advocate a process-oriented approach, not a product- or goal-oriented one. For them ESP is not "a product but an approach to language teaching which is directed by specific and apparent reasons for learning"
This level is consisted of various target language related components such as culture, community or pragmatism. The second level is the learner level which focuses on what an individual adds to language learning process. Specifically, self-confidence is the main issue of this level. The third level is learning situation level which includes intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and motivational components as course- specific motivational component, teacher- specific motivational component and group- specific motivational component. As seen in Table 1, interest, relevance, expectancy and satisfaction are the main factors of course-specific motivation in learning situation level.
This shift has led to a reconceptualization of language, context, and learning in profound ways. Sociocultural theories (SCT) of learning conceptualize the relationship between the learner and the social world as dialectical and mediated by cultural artifacts, among which language is primary. Learners are not just passive recipients of language input and teachers are not just providers of input. Rather, the learners, the teacher, and the sociocultural context in which the discourse takes place are constitutive of what is being learned. Seen from this perspective, classroom discourse studies based on the input-output model present an impoverished and reductionist view of L2
LEARNING THEORIES 2.9.1 Schema Theory Schema theory introduced by Frederic Charles Bartlett later developed by educational psychologist Anderson (2008) stated that comprehending a text requires activating an existing schema or creating a new schema that organizes the information. Schema theory proposes that people translate information about a situation based on their prior knowledge. A learners background knowledge is referred to as schema in reading literature, which includes all experiences that a reader relates to a text: life experiences, educational experiences, knowledge of how text can be organized rhetorically, knowledge of how first and second language works, knowledge on cultural background. Schema theory assumes that written text
Moreover, insights from various theoretical and methodological approaches for second and foreign language learning, such as humanizing pedagogy, critical pedagogy, and postmethod pedagogy have all influenced the perception of the learner as an individual living and thinking person who needs to be critically aware of his/her learning opportunity. What those scholarships (e.g., Freire, 1970; Kumaravadivelu, 2001, 2003a; Pennycook, 2004) are arguing for is that language teaching should foster an environment that enables learners to construct their own knowledge, determine their learning goals, and reflect on their personal experiences so that learners will be empowered as legitimate language users inside and outside the
Language awareness or metalinguistic awareness refers to knowledge about language an individual has or should have of his native or second language. Myers-Scotton, (2006) states that the term metalinguistic knowledge [emphasis added] has been used in many different ways, but that its basic meaning is getting to know about the abstract character of language. Bialystok (2001a: 127 as cited by Myers-Scotton, 2006) puts it this way, “To the extent that a learner has metalinguistic knowledge, second language acquisition [emphasis added] is facilitated because a language template is available” (p. 23). Language teachers should know what languages are and how they are acquired or learned. Language acquisition and language learning are two different
al (2013), this study overviews current research on the role of motivation in second or foreign language learning. It deals with the meaning of motivation from different views, and the scope of motivation within the context of language learning. It also deals with the role of motivation in developing language skills, specially reading and writing. It also shows the relationship between gender differences, learning strategies, teachers, and materials with the concept of motivation. Finally, it concludes that motivation has an influential role in all aspects of language
In terms of writing in a second language, The Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning has defined the genre approach as “a framework for language instruction” (Byram, 2004, p. 234) based on examples of a particular genre. The genre framework supports students’ 33 34 writing with generalized, systematic guiding principles about how to produce meaning- ful passages. But first, what is a genre? Swales (1990) identified a genre as “a class of communicative events, the members of which share some set of communicative purposes” (p. 58). His definition offers the basic idea that there are certain conventions or rules which are generally associated with a writer’s purpose.