3. Culture is shared by a social group, a community, and/or a nation. The sharing of the different cultural aspects such as attitudes, norms, and values is what makes it clear enough for a certain group of people to be identified as different. 4. Culture is integrated in the sense that all of its aspects are connected to each other in one way or another.
2.7.3. Cultural and language differences 22.214.171.124. Cultural differences Culture may be defined as the beliefs, value, and behavior and material objects shared by particular people. Macionis saied that ; Sociologists distinguish between non- material culture, which means the intangible, creation of human society such as ideas and beliefs. Material culture, the tangible product of human society that is concrete expression of ideas and beliefs.
Ethnicity is the notion that connects all individuals to their ancestral identity where there is a shared concept of culture, gender, class, race, family, and organization. Through these shared concepts, an identity is formed but it can also be changed or further developed when exposed to a new society or through globalization. This will be explored through the concepts of the self, education, globalizations, and subjectivity. The classical psychological understanding of the self which we know as the psychodynamic approach present us with Freud’s ideas of the conscious, preconscious and unconscious state of the self. The consciousness is the surface of Freud’s mental model which consists of what can be perceived in the mind or in the social
Cultural identity turn out to be an evident through social association. However, Jane Collier and Milt Thomas joined the study and the methodical recording of human cultures of communication and social structure of cultural identity. These belongings refer to the way members of a group talk their identity. First is the Avowal and ascription which deals with how one observe and voice his/her view about certain group identity. Second is modes of expression which is the use of core symbols such as names, labels and expected standard of behaviour which community share and follow to show that they belong to a group, exhibits shared identity.
This essay will discuss the significance of language in formations of ethnic and national identities in modern context, as well as the reciprocal relationship between language development and identity formation. Tajfel (1979) proposed that the groups, which people belonged to, were an important source of pride and self-esteem and defined social identity as ‘part of an individual’s self-concept which derives from his knowledge of his membership in a social group’. Thus, one’s identity may entail ethnic, national, religious aspects and so on. Identity is constantly interactively constructed on a microlevel, where an individual’s identity is claimed, contested and re-constructed in interaction and in relation to the other participants (Norris 2007:657). During this process, the tool of communication and interaction is undoubtedly languages of respective groups.
The social categories have two distinguishing features: the first one is the implicit or explicit “rules of membership and the second is the characteristics of a person (beliefs, moral commitment or physical attribute.) In other words, the social categories are socially constructed and encompass role identities (mother, father, doctor etc...) as well as type identities as national, ethnic and religious identities.. One of the earliest statements of social identity was made by Kurt Lewin, who emphasized that individuals need a firm sense of group identification in order to maintain a sense of
ulture: Culture refers to the set of shared beliefs, ideas, customs, values etc. by a particular society or a group, which are transmitted from one generation to another, through communication or imitation. It is basically the sum total of a person’s learned, accumulated experience which is socially communicated or behavior through social learning. Culture is a way of life. It also differentiates the people of one group from another.
Social identity theory Social Identity theory (SIT) was founded by Tajfel and Turner in 1979, as a social-psychological perspective. Social identity theory explains that the identity of people is built out of perceived memberships to groups, like gender, age, religion and organizational membership, and self-image partly derives from the social categories which the person feels he belongs to. As people join several groups, one has different identities and behaviours to align with a specific group. The theory predicts that intergroup behaviours are explained by the perceived group statuses, legitimacy and stability of these differences and the possibility to change groups (Tajfel and Turner, 1979). Tajfel and Turner explain three assumptions
Leary, Wheeler and Jenkins (1986) conducted two studies to examine the relationship between an individual’s salient aspects of identity, and behavioral preferences. Both social and personal aspects of identities were considered for the purpose of these studies. According to Cheeks and Briggs (1982), the characteristics that form a person’s identity can be dichotomized into social and personal elements. Personal elements are those components of one’s self-definition that uniquely “belong” to an individual. These may include one’s beliefs, goals, abilities, and feelings, among other things.