In this paper, I will discuss the ideological influences of fascism, a major political doctrine that gave rise to totalitarian dictatorships throughout the world from the early- to mid-20th century. This paper’s discussion of fascism will be limited to Italian Fascism (hereafter, “Fascism”), the original and perhaps definitive form of fascism, during and between the World Wars. Italian Fascism arose from and was defined by its opposition to other political doctrines, particularly liberalism and socialism. Thus, Fascism was not as much an independent political ideology as it was anti-liberalism and anti-communism. At the same time, however, Fascism shared key characteristics in common with the ideologies it claimed to oppose. Fascism was a mixture …show more content…
First, Mussolini and his adherents needed a revolution. They were absolutely opposed only to liberal democracy. Willing to use any means for their purpose, they borrowed from contradictory political doctrines to form a new, sufficiently revolutionary ideology. Thus, Fascism was somehow able to simultaneously appeal to two groups located at opposite ends of the political spectrum, the conservatives and the syndicalists. Mussolini tried to downplay the ideological ambiguity of Fascism, arguing that labels like “conservative” and “liberal” were mere empty terminologies. For Mussolini, who was likely aware of his own opportunism, a political doctrine did not have any value in and of itself, but only in its usefulness in practice. It didn’t matter which means were used for the fulfillment of important ends: “The machine first of all must run!” In early-20th century Italy, Rightist methods happened to be the most useful, in Mussolini’s view, for effecting the political change he desired. It just so happened that the 20th century was “a century of authority, a century tending to the Right”—a century in which people preferred order. Mussolini accepted that Fascism may be replaced by another doctrine more useful in the next century. As it happened, however, such a natural replacement did not occur, since Fascism was not a doctrine that had arisen naturally. Like all other artificial doctrines, it eventually provided unable to stand against the natural force of
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Socially, Fascism was mainly supported by the middle class, industrialists, and the military. With fascism quickly on the rise, it would become somewhat of an unstoppable force. Take into consideration the Axis Powers during this time, along with fascism they would be unstoppable forces at work. The Axis Powers consisted
In Europe after WWI, many borders changed, nations broke apart and new governments rose. Many changes occurred, however, different countries handled these changes in different ways. Some European countries turned toward fascism while other European countries stayed democratic. Following the war, the economies of some countries remained strong enough for democracy to persist, however, countries such as Germany and Italy turned to fascism as a result of the poor economic state that WWI left these nations in and, as a result of the rise of extreme nationalism.
Everyone has a place or part in the government and operate together, as a whole, “We are nothing. Mankind is all” (Rand 21). Likewise, in a society with a fascist government, individuality is prohibited, contrary ideas are censored and nationalism is emphasized. Benito Mussolini was the leader in Italy during its reign under fascism. Soon after declaring himself dictator, a strict press censorship was instituted.
The planned march of thousands of Fascist supporters to take control of Rome. In response to this, Mussolini was given the legal right to control Italy. Totalitarian State A government in which a one-party dictatorship regulates every aspect of citizens’ lives.
Giovanni Gentile, the father of Italian fascism, suggest that the totalitarian state looks to "total representation of the nation and total guidance of national goals" (Appelrouth and Edles, 2012). He indicates that while this control is most obvious and pronounced under a dictatorship, it is not entirely absent in democratic
Have you ever heard the saying that Fascism and Communism are two sides of the same coin? These ideologies flourished during the first half of the 20th century and influenced several European states which followed the two ideologies. Fascism was imposed in order to promote powerful and permanent nationalism within a totalitarian state led by a dictator which is ready to engage in conflict internally and with its neighbors. The doctrine of Fascism was drafted in 1919 by Giovanni Gentile and adopted by Mussolini (Mussolini is considered the founder of fascism). Gentile stated, “Everything for the state; nothing against the state” (Heywood, Politics 48).
Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany were similar in that both were dictatorships. Both Mussolini and Hitler came to power through legal means and believed that people were divided into either inferior or superior races. For example, Hitler was obsessed with the Aryan race and called for the genocide of Jews during WWII. In addition, both Mussolini and Hitler favored the wealthy, believed that an individual was meaningless and must submit to the decisions of their leaders, and aimed at self-sufficiency so that each could survive entirely without international trade. Furthermore, Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy “had aimed for prestige and power for their countries, and brought instead humiliation and destruction” (Tarr, R.,
376) This description of Fascism indicates a government that is involved in the lives of its citizens to an extreme degree. By illustrating the government as a “powerful form of personality”, Mussolini alludes to the Fascist characteristic of organicism, where the state is seen as an organic whole being. Mussolini continues his
Within the new corporative State, the industrialists and the workers organized in groups themselves controlled by the party That Represented the different Sectors from the economy. The capitalist system and the social services stayed Were Increased, but the independent unions and the right to strike were abolished. One of the lasting legacies of the fascism was the creation of a system of holdings industrialists Financed by the State. On the other hand, the Lateran Pacts, signed with the papacy in February 1929, ended the conflict that had faced the Church and the Kingdom of Italy from 1870 and involved the creation of a new state, the Vatican
Communism believed in a classless society, while Fascism followed a dictatorship, but maintaining a dictatorship required the suppression of the people. Fascist ideology believed that “war alone brings up to their highest tension all human energies and puts the stamp of nobility upon the peoples who have the courage to meet it,” which requires constant violence to prove power (Lualdi 236). By 1924, Mussolini was able to gain 65% of the vote for fascism, but in 1933, the Nazi party only gained 44% of the vote, and even with a minority ruling party was able to gain control of the government. Both Mussolini and Hitler came into power through legal means, but Mussolini was named Prime Minister in the hopes of avoiding war but after gaining control. Yet after their legal rise into power, they used coercion and violence to further their fascist rulings.
Fascism is ideology which often uses totalitarianism and nationalism methods. The fascist leaders made people are the subject to the government, and limit the independency of the people, in order to gain the better for the nation. This is somehow similar to absolutism of western Europe during 17th and 18th century. Absolutism had given the monarch absolute power to rule over people, while fascism had given the leader and the nation the power to rule over the people of the state. Moreover, fascism had denied the democratic parliament system, and had only allowed the “elite” to rule over the country.
When the modern capitalist society has emerged, capitalism has massively impacted on many social aspects. The system had led to the dissolution and to an end of the Feudal system during the Middle Ages. There are many political thoughts, which consisted of significant frameworks for reforming and making some new changes to the society. This essay will mainly focus on two main political ideologies and identify the differences between these two houses, which are Marx and Mussolini. First, the German thinker, Marx, and a letter called “ Manifesto of the Communist Party”, bring about the concept of communism that was being used in many areas back in the olden days.
As Payne stated in his book “Fascism: Comparison and Definition” (1980), Fascism in general may be considered the most doubtful contemporary term in politics. This is the case as the word “fascism” does not have an ‘implicit political reference’ as it happens regarding democracy, communism, socialism and liberalism. When taking into consideration the phenomenon of Fascism in Italy it is
In the late 1920’s, the Nazi party had little success but in 1933, Hitler and the Nazis came to power. Hitler was the leader of a small right-wing party with very extremist ideas. Within a couple of years this party was in control of Germany. The factors that caused Hitler’s success for the rise of Nazism has been studied ever since. Hitler’s organisation skills and personal traits helped to bring the Naizs into power.