to describe their own or other’s viewpoint (Heywood 2003, 1). Generally ideas and ideologies have impacts on political life of people in several ways. First, they belay a particular light through which the world is understood. People see the world through some fixed beliefs or suppositions. They subscribe to a set of political beliefs which guides their behaviour and influence their conduct.
Generally speaking, ideology refers to a set of ideas, beliefs, values and rules that a social group is committed to. Marxist conception of ideology describes how the dominant ideas within a given society reflect and help to preserve the interests of a ruling economic class. In reality, ‘through ideology, the elitist social groups naturalize capitalist relations of production in a way that workers come to view the capitalist mode of production as the only viable option” (Stoddart). Hence, ideology is so powerful a system of ideas which the masses lack the intellectual capacity to understand how it functions and to resist its influences and outcomes. Gramsci speaks of “the hegemonic ideology of the Bourgeoisie” that offers “a kind of consciousness which concerns the realization of ideological interests of the subordinate classes” (Im, 1991).
These beliefs align with the philosopher Karl Marx, known as the father of communism who promoted an egalitarianism way of thinking. These actions would be opposed by conservatives as there would be a lack of motivation to improve certain products since everyone receives equal pay. This also causes the government to have overwhelming control over the lives of
The idea of the world represented in the novel, is exactly the world that Orwell did not wish the future to be. However in terms of the control mechanisms that have occurred due to the rule of a single party, Orwell’s best attempt to create awareness for this imperfect future was to create one where the privacy and freedom of humans is placed in jeopardy and in actual fact non-existent. Newspeak probably is the key component, while it does not immediately silence the idea of rebellion and freedom, it does narrow the thoughts of society into a single minded one. Some may call it hypnosis; others call it conforming to a normal. Newspeak refers to the fictional language in the novel Nineteen Eighty-Four, written by George Orwell.
Philosophers influenced with new thoughts. The English philosopher John Locke impacted with his ideas about the natural rights, which are the rights of the human being outside of law. The french thinker Montesquieu published “The Spirit Of Loss” which was a book that talked about how the government should be. He was responsible for the discussion about separating the government into three power: legislative, executive, and judicial. Another influential philosopher was the french Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who wrote the Bill Of Rights.
Its writers such as Albert Mathiez and Albert Soboul, reflect their political positions within the French Communist Party, and their influence on events such as the Russian Revolution. (1) In Soboul’s writing, using a Marx’s socio-economic foundation argues that the Revolution occurrence was an essential social and economic transformation of French society. This “bourgeois” revolution reflects the middle-class formation of consciousness, and it’s uprising to overthrow the Ancien Regime, the political elite of the time. Soboul asserts that the revolutionist consisted of “capitalist,” that comprised a conscious middle class, and this was the revolutionary push from feudalism to capitalism. (2) The distinction from feudalism to capitalism demonstrates an essential element signifying the importance of the Revolution in Marxist views.
The term ideology was firstly defined in the writings of Destutt de Tracy, a French philosopher, at the end of the 18th century. According to the New Oxford Dictionary of English, the ideology is ‘a system of ideas and ideals, especially one forming the basis of economic or political theory and policy’. Hatim and Mason (1997, p 144) define this term as ‘a set of the tacit assumptions, beliefs and value systems that can be shared collectively by social groups’. Ideology is also considered as a belief system. Hawkins (2001) stated that the ideology is a source of human conflicts and should be considered a crucial phenomenon like language in translation process.
The only way to overcome the initial contradiction of liberalism is not to completely change the society, but rather to improve it. Individual freedom, which is the basis of liberalism, does not necessarily generate inequality. The harm principle of Mill does not give us a specific definition of freedom; it simply states that men are free to do whatever they want, as long as their actions do not harm others. The advantage of this definition is that it is not fixed and it can change; so it allows liberal democratic governments to decide, based on the society which they rule, what is harming their
Civil Society has become one the most important features of the Morden State, whether operate independently or cooperated by the state. The primary role for the civil society is to limit the control of power by the state but more often now more civil society organisations have been co-opted into the state. This move has been criticized as it is view as that the state only do it to advance its own interest. Starting off with the idea of civil as state society, Marx does not go with the idea that it is the state that creates and sustains civil society. Below some of Marx criticism of this idea by different scholars in discussed.
There is disagreement among theorists as to whether the view that discourse is fully constitutive amounts to this form of idealism. Laclau and Mouffe, for example, argue strongly against the accusation of idealism on the grounds that the conception of discourse as constitutive does not imply that physical objects do not exist but, rather, that they acquire meaning only through discourse. Critical discourse analysis engages in concrete, linguistic textual analysis of language use in social interaction. This distinguishes it from both Laclau and Mouffe’s discourse theory which does not carry out systematic, empirical studies of language use, and from discursive psychology which carries out rhetorical but not linguistic studies of language