Cultural relativism asserts the fact that each culture has its own type of coherent understanding (Heintz 2009 : 5.) In other words, a culture must be judged in context of its history, origin as well as the people who follow it. There are many examples that exist in various cultures where practices can be often viewed as primitive and often
Meaning change has long been the poor relation within historical linguistics but between few decades there has been much important work in both historical linguistics and a study of semantics. One reason to neglect this semantic change is that the changes themselves seem to be irregular. It was supposed that semantic change is fuzzy and self-contradictory in nature and cannot be easily predicted. This is the reason that just about all linguistic theories scholars concentrate on the structural aspects of language. There is always a disagreement among scholars regarding the classification of semantic change.
Language plants its own seeds of change, and social background offers fertile ground for its growth. Bhatti (2013) asserts that if structure is at the heart of language, then variation defines its soul. As Sapir (1921) puts it “Everyone knows that language is variable.” Furthermore, variation allows us to differentiate individuals, groups, communities, states and nations. The study of language variation is pivotal to the solution of basic problems in linguistic theory (Labov 1966, 2001). Variability is prevalent in language; one of the amazing facts about human communication is the demonstrated ability to normalize the inherent variation within every spoken or written message in processing the linguistic signal.
It is even more inspiring when learning different forms of speech and how each dialect or accent differs in a words meaning and/or pronunciation. Many words in linguistics might seem that they have the same meaning like for example trying to understand the difference between phonemes and allophones. Reading and practicing vocally will help you. Never the less: both terms phonology and phonetics are important in the linguistic field, and needs to be understood rather than
To translate these, translators have to base on the preceding text to understand and reconstruct them. Wrong reconstruction can make reader misunderstand about the content of the text. Thirdly, redundancies are also obstacles for translator. These structures, which mix synonyms into a word without changing or adding any more meaning, are big problems. For example, in English, if an author uses the phrase “foreign imports”, it may be translated into Vietnamese by just the word “nhập khẩu” because both “foreign” and “import” have same meaning.
Many people have faced many problems while learning other languages. One of those problems is personal pronouns. They are very important because they reflect the cultural communication. This research will give an overview of similarities and differences between personal pronouns as subject and object pronouns in English and Vietnamese. Introduction We know that learning other languages is the best way to transmit what you are thinking and your feeling to your other countries’ friends, so that you can build and improve your interconnected relationship.
In addition, the manipulation of the English language in writing and speaking, with as the use of figurative language and compositional techniques, makes the writing more persuasive and impactful. Speaking properly and effectively will change the way you talk and will change the way people will listen to you. By displaying knowledge and skill towards the widely accepted language, the audience gain trust towards the writer or speaker, fostering an authoritative relationship between the two. It was through my past experience that I came to a realization that impactful speech and writing, possible through the use and manipulation of proper English, serve as agents for gaining my audience’s attention. Being elected as the former President of my high school, it was my obligation to lead nearly a thousand students.
In this study, we will describe major differences between British and American English pronunciation in terms of change of vowels and consonants. Although the change of stress is not being as marked, it also contributes to differentiate both accents. We will mention three areas where important differences are found, namely, the French loanwords, the suffixes –ary, -ory, -berry, and the ending –ate. We can summarize the main differences between American English and British English as follows: 1) The presence of rhotic accent. 2) Differences in vowel pronunciation.
There are great similarities and differences among regional cultures. Their similarities make words in one culture find its corresponding word which has the same or similar meaning with it in other culture. The differences make some words in one culture find no corresponding words in other culture. In the progress of translation, those words which carry unique cultural features in the source language cause lexical gaps in the target language. Cultural differences usually cause lexical gaps.
Hence, the translator will try to achieve the same function in the TT even though, it may appear unfaithful to the ST. The idea of a good translation relates to an idea of fluency in the TT or a way to make the target text acceptable. In line with this, Hatim and Mason explain translating as "an act of communication which attempts to relay, across cultural and linguistic boundaries, another act of communication (which may have been intended for different purposes and different readers/hearers)"(2005:1). That so, the translator needs to study all the linguistic and cultural parts involved in translating in order to achieve a new text from the source language, that the TT readers can understand and relate to in their own cultural context. This agrees with the concept of "dynamic" and "equivalent effect” developed by Eugene Nida.