Stanislaus Ulam was one of the designers who helped improve the H-bomb and made it more powerful. In January 1951, Ulam came up with the idea of placing a hollow tube of uranium or plutonium inside the bomb casing and also used the fission explosive lens assembly (dailykos) . The intense radiation pressures produced by the implosion trigger might, he thought, flood the bomb casing and momentarily produce enough pressure to squeeze the hollow tube into a solid rod, in effect imploding it into a critical mass which would then add to the yield (dailykos). Edward Teller was the other designer who combined his ideas with Ulams’ to make the H-bomb so effective. When Ulam told Teller about the idea, Teller combined them together in order to make the H-bomb more powerful..
He is also known for the Born-Oppenheimer Approximation; the assumption that the electronic motion and the nuclear motion in molecules can be separated. Oppenheimer perished on February 18, 1967, in Princeton, New Jersey, at the age of 63. Robert impacted history with his multiple accomplishments throughout his lifetime, including his assistance with the assembly of the atomic bomb and the Born-Oppenheimer Approximation. Robert inherited his first name, Julius, from his father, Julius S. Oppenheimer. His mother 's name was Ella Friedman.
Instead using the Debye model, the two chemists determined that the heavy isotope should have a higher boiling point than elemental hydrogen. In theory, they determined that if five liters of the element was distilled into one milliliter, the sample would become enriched in hydrogen-2 by a hundred to two-hundred times. Seeing this as the perfect solution to their issue, Urey and Murphy journeyed to the National Bureau of Standards in Washington, D.C.; the cryogenics laboratory that was located there would allow them to obtain the amount of liquid hydrogen they needed to conduct the experiment. While in Washington, D.C., the men gained the help of Ferdinand Brickwedde, an old friend of Urey’s, who supplied them with the samples of liquid hydrogen. “Accordingly two samples of hydrogen were prepared by evaporating large quantities of liquid hydrogen and collecting the gas which evaporated…” (Urey, H., Brickwedde, F. G., and Murphy, G. M., 1932), and then analyzed by the chemists, whom were searching for evidence of deuterium.
The effects of chlorine turned victims’ skin to different shades of colour and the fluid inside one’s lungs would build up. Haber became one of the greatest minds in chemistry. A few years after WWI, Haber was convicted for prosecuting thousands with his chemical warfare innovations. When
He made a book called, “Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica” which was published in 1687. He also made pathbreaking contributions to optics that he shares credit with Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz for developing the infinitesimal calculus. Newton formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation that dominated other scientists’ views on the physical universe for the next 300 years. Using the same principles to account for the trajectories of comets, the tides, etc; Newton removed the last doubts
Karl’s father died when Karl was six years old and he was raising by his mom Fanny Hess. After making several well-known discoveries Karl died on June 26th 1943 in New York City, New York (www.nobelprize.org). After finishing school Karl Landsteiner studied at the University of Vienna in Austria. Karl graduated in 1891 and earned a major in Medicine. Karl wanted a more diverse education in Chemistry, so for the next five years he studied in Zurich Wurzburg, and Munich.
Any common dictionary would state that Philosophy is, “knowledge of nature or reality.” Changes during the Gilded Age would continue off achievements made alongside science. Theories of evolution and the introduction to Darwinism did not just have established a grip on scientific communities, but also philosophical communities as well. A great example would be to analyze the writings of Charles Darwin. Charles Darwin not only brought forth a theory of evolution to attempt to debunk Creationism, but he also delivered his theory of “Natural Selection.” It formed an ideology that only that best will survive or simply survival of the fittest. In fact, “Many social Darwinists stress competition between individuals in laissez-faire (hands-off) capitalism.” This spirit of Social Darwinism would continue its impact on Philosophy far past the reach of simple nature or reality.
(Alexander Fleming Biography) Unlike Alexander Fleming, Paracelsus made advancements with chemistry and toxicology. He was the one who gave zinc it’s name. (Paracelsus) Paracelsus came up with the name from the old German word zinkie, which meant pointed. This is because it looked as though it had pointed crystals. (Paracelsus Biography) Both of these men discovered life saving treatments.
Many historic buildings that could never be replaced were destroyed. Buckingham Palace and St. Paul’s Cathedral were hit by bombs, but were not completely destroyed (See Appendix C). The Germans dropped nearly 30,000 bombs on London and the city showed the devastating effect (“WW2 - the Blitz Hits London”). The destruction of these buildings gave London an opportunity to replace many older buildings with new ones that would better accommodate for the modern world. Winston Churchill summed up the debt Britain owed to its pilots quite well with his “finest hour” speech.
The film Einstein and Eddington unfolds the story of how Arthur Eddington contributed to Albert Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity. Einstein was the one who first introduced the concept of relativity, but Eddington was the one who finished the theory by proving Einstein’s claim. It all started when Eddington found out an anomaly with the behavior of Mercury; that Mercury’s behavior is against Newton’s theory. Eddington used Mercury as a counter example to disprove Newton’s theory. He consulted Einstein about this because Einstein’s theory seems to justify Mercury’s behavior and not the theory of Newton.