2. 3 The importance of Freudian approach in literature There are certain psychoanalytic concepts expressed by Sigmund Freud that can be applied to interpret literary texts. Most of the literary texts, like dreams, articulate the secret unconscious desires and concerns of the author, that a literary work is expression of the author’s own neuroses. One may psychoanalyze a particular character within a literary work, but it is usually assumed that all such characters are outcrops of the author’s psyche. The interesting side of this approach is that it confirms the importance of literature, as it is built on a literary key for the making out.
Wilhelm Reich once said, “Only the liberation of the natural capacity for love in human beings can master their sadistic destructiveness.” Love or desire is a harmful thing that can make people go against their morality, their ethics and lead them to self-destruction. The psychological lens in literary criticism has shown how love can be alienated by society, which leads people to have their secret wishes and unconscious desires. Through this lens, desires will be unveiled in literary classics like Heart of Darkness, Alice: Through the Looking Glass, Brave New World and … Psychoanalysis in literary criticism is based on Sigmund Freud’s (1886-1939) theories of psychology, of how literary texts and dreams express unconscious desires. Freud’s
During this period, freedom of feelings and creativity. This may have lead to Extreme Skepticism to occur after all the writings infused with strong feelings. Sigmund Freud's book Civilisation and its Discontents prove that his writings make him one of the founders of Modernism. The theme of “Conscience and the Super-Ego” (Gradesaver, Civilisation and its Discontents) plays out in the book as a form of Skepticism. He argues that the Super-Ego is responsible for the “discontents” that human beings experience in civilisation as “The super-ego often puts severe demands on the individual that he cannot realistically met, causing great unhappiness.” (Gradesaver, Civilisation and its Discontents).
In The Uncanny, Freud strongly emphasizes the study and beauty of the fearful and the terrifying. He elicits this subject as what is left behind of aesthetics. Aesthetics is the theory of quality of feeling, which essentially includes positive and negative feelings. However, this theory, in its existence, has neglected to include the uncanny, preferring to concentrate on beauty and, generally, on more positive emotions. In Freud’s essay, he glorifies the subject of the uncanny by examining and elaborating on the feelings evoked by anxiety and why they are crucial in the minds of individuals.
Some of the recurring themes in works of postmodern literature turned out to be paranoia, minimalism, metafiction and twists on heroism. Heroism came to be a debatable topic in analysis of postmodern literature because of the arguable diversity between the novels. However, it’s sole purpose was not just to entertain, but like most art, for the author to express themselves in a way they haven’t been able to. As a result, Catch-22 presents Yossarian as an anti-hero used by its author, Joseph Heller, to introduce his opinion on war, war heroes and the current social status of the United States. The altered perception of heroism, believed to be present in only some works of postmodern literature, is used to convey the author’s state of mind to the reader in an
Poe believes that stories that dealt with gothic literature needed to have allegories in them to have a second level of meaning in addition to it’s literal meaning. Theses types of elements were popular in this time period because they taught moral lessons and contributed to the dark feeling a person undergoes when finding the true meaning of not only the story, but are able to personally understand the true feeling the author is trying to make individuals feel. In “The Tale and Its Effect”, Poe stated that he used and supported unity of effect to go about discussing the themes he embedded within his stories in order to make the reader to feel a certain way. He believes that they need to be short and sweet so that the author can get all the details to the reader. Poe exclaims that short stories are superior to novels because one is able to sit down and finish it in one-sitting rather than breaking the experience, with the possibility of forgetting important elements.
The prevalence of depictions of mental illness within literature in the 1900s paralleled the increase of medical and scientific evaluation of insanity. It is arguable that the depiction of mental illness in literature is fairly perilous, seeing as an uninformed author can create an entirely contrasting scenario that is far from the harsh truth of the illness, adding to the endless stigma that is associated with the condition. Plath’s and Rossetti’s original, first-hand accounts on their experience with mental illness is a refreshing juxtaposition to the usual misconceptions and these two novels allow the readers to crawl deep inside the minds of the writers. Sylvia Plath committed suicide on the 11th of February, 1963. Throughout her life,
Psychoanalytic criticism is a form of literary criticism which uses some of the techniques of psychoanalysis in the interpretation of literature. In 1920’s a very wide-spread form of psychoanalytic criticism emerged, and procedures of which were established by Austrian psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud. Freud’s application of psychoanalytic theory to literature was imitated and then modified by numerous critics. Several writers of poetry and fiction have relied on Freudian models.Some psychoanalytic dramatists are Mahesh Dattani, Girish Karnad and Vijay Tendulkar. Psychoanalytic poets are Kamala Das, Shiv K. Kumar, Eunice de Souza, Mamta Kalia, Sunita Jain and Gauri Deshpande.Shiv K. Kumar’s poems are born out of his own personal experiences.
Recognizing the division of personality in the,”ID”Ego”, and Super ego and that the unconscious is an important part of who we are and noting that anxiety plays a big function in how one reacts to the world at large and highlighting Freud’s theory on defense mechanism to help one cope with such anxieties. Core Philosophy of the Therapeutic Approach The most important underlying ideas relating to the psychoanalytic theory was mainly influenced by Sigmund Freud, one of the most famous names in Psychology, his Psychoanalytic Theory formed the bases of many current psychoanalytic theories. He was the first to discuss the unconscious mind and its role in human behaviour. Freud believed that there were three levels consciousness the first he labeled s the unconscious mind which exist outside of an individual’s awareness at all times. The
These strains have been labeled as ‘Dramatic’. He set a vague for metaphysical conceit and influenced a large number of contemporary poets. The concept of metaphysical conceit is another but most enticing aspect of Donne’s poetry. According to Dr Johnson, “conceits are the most heterogeneous ideas yoked by violence together”. Metaphysical poets are unable to achieve their poetic goals because they do not represent basic human nature and human feelings in their poetry.