Kant also said that if someone did the right thing because they wanted to, their acts would have no moral worth. Kant’s arguments aren’t
Confucius, Aristotle, and Lao-Tzu—all incredibly influential thinkers—did not always agree on how one ought to live; where Aristotle believed that thought or study led to virtue, Lao-Tzu placed focus on inaction, and Confucius taught that rituals paved the way to the best life. A few ideas, however, tie Confucius closer to Aristotle than to Lao-Tzu. Because Aristotle also placed importance on names, emphasized the need to find a mean of behavior, and believed that rulers should most critically be moral, Confucius would have preferred Aristotle to Lao-Tzu. Names—Aristotle utilizes them, even though he recognizes the difference between what exists in reality and the form represented by its name, while Lao-Tzu, on the other hand, maintains that names only serve to put limits on the named, and, in fact run the risk of creating opposites. According to Lao-Tzu, “Recognize beauty and ugliness is born.
Methods of Rationalism by Plato and Descartes Philosophy has had an impact on mankind for thousands of years. This topic attempts to answer questions about the everyday world, and how things are the way they are. In Philosophy, there are many different topics that are discussed. These topics include Epistemology, Ontology, Ethics, Political and Social Philosophy, Aesthetics, Logic, and more. The topic that will be discussed in this paper is Epistemology, or the study of knowledge.
In philosophy, there are many interpretations as to what ethics are correct for that time frame. One such form of ethics was Nicomachean ethics, written by Aristotle. With his ethics, Aristotle goes to great lengths to explain, for the most part, why humanity does what it does in a reasonable and rational manner. He goes over what “good” is, and why people strive to get to that “good”. However, there are some problems that arise when trying to discuss Aristotle’s ethics.
However to what extent can his theory be used and what are the strengths and weaknesses that occur from his theory? The strengths and the main points that stand out in Kant´s theory are, he emphasis the value of every human being, he shines light that some acts can always be perceived as being wrong and it provides certainty. In further detail the theory proceeds on the assumption that every human being is endowed with reason, should purely act out of duty and carry responsibility for one´s actions. It´s totality is easily understandable as well as applicable - do what is right, because it is right and the other way around, so to speak. Not only the people, but also the environment would benefit from
Within the given extract from Aristotle's ‘Nicomachean Ethics’ one’s interpretation is that Aristotle aims to continue the discussion on what makes a Good Life, which specific focus on what exactly the Good is. Aristotle starts by explaining that cultured men, educated and successful, “identify the Good with honour” as this is perceived to be the “goal of the political life”. Aristotle disagrees with identification, justifying this by explaining honour to be a superficial argument, being that it focuses on the gaining of something (ie power) over others, which is ultimately not Good motivation. Aristotle sees it that “People[...]seek honour in order to convince themselves of their own goodness”. Many would argue that to act only to justify one's own actions is not the entirety of the Good Life, as it has selfish motivations and selfishness is not part of the true nature of the Good Life.
Henry Louis Mencken describes our conscience as “the inner voice that warns us somebody may be looking”; however, this is not the case in reality. This idea implies the conscience acts only to help someone save face and protect his/her reputation; it stops us from doing what is wrong only to maintain one’s own image. Our conscience actually does this and more. Conscience stops us from doing bad not only to protect our image but also—to put it simply—just to stop us from doing what is wrong. Conscience is our moral compass that makes us do what is good simply because it is what we believe is right for us to do.
Usually beliefs and values are determined by the personal concept of good and evil. Beliefs and values develop accordingly to the individual idea of good. They essentially represent the best actions and things for a person and, very often, for the society. People have often asked themselves, throughout the time, whether what makes an action right or wrong is the motive for which the action is carried out or its consequences and results. Deontological ethics (or deontology) and consequentialism, two opposite branches of philosophy, developed to answer those question.
The first, it being the most perfect or most complete good and the second, that it be self sufficient. This end is not a subjective object of desire. It also cannot be assumed that this human good is something which all humans pursue. Rather, it is what we should pursue and as such provides us with a standard that can normatively evaluate the good of human life. The human good is activity of the soul in accordance with [rational] virtue, and if there
“Plato’s philosophy is an attempt to justify Socrates’ belief in the objectivity of moral virtues.” As one of Socrates’ most loyal disciples, Plato’s own philosophy was heavily influenced by Socrates’ own thoughts and teachings. Much of Plato’s philosophy is a direct extension of some of the questions Socrates posed, i.e., Socrates asked what justice is, and Plato explored this question in his own writings. It is Socrates’ code of ethics, however, that most closely corresponds with Plato’s ethics.