In other words, Nietzsche’s entire essay depends on one word: metaphors. The usage of metaphors is crucial to explain his own definitions. Moreover, Nietzsche demonstrates through the language of metaphors that the intellect can be deceiving, which causes humans to be more like the intuitive man-- one
Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher who, similar to John Stuart Mill, created a modern ethical theory. Kant and Mill both believed in a bottom up ethics, which claims that human beings are the legislature of moral law. However, the views of these two philosophers were polar opposites. Kant believes that there is a difference between a right action and a moral action. He first illustrates that a moral action proceeds from duty, obligation or moral law.
He divided the power of reason into theoretical and practical aspects. In either aspects reason is a very active faculty (The blackwill guide to kant 's ethics). In its theoretical use reason supplies us with principles that guides us with the understanding of the task of organizing our sense impressions into coherent and understanding patterns. Theoretical reasons provides us with principles that makes coherent perception and empirical scientific investigation possible (The blackwill guide to kant 's ethics).While in its practical use reason does more than seek the best means to whatever contingent desires we passively find ourselves processing, practical reasoning has to do with the exercise of
In Meno, Meno and Socrates are discussing Virtue and attempting to develop a definition of what Virtue is. At one point in the dialogue Meno states that Virtue is “desiring fine things and being able to acquire them” Baird and Kaufmann, 156). In their attempts to analyze this definition they discuss evil, what it is and whether or not it is ever desired by people. I will use this discussion to answer the beginning question from Plato’s perspective and show that, through Socrates and Meno, Plato demonstrates that evil is a form of ignorance, and as we know from Plato’s Allegory of the Cave, ignorance is one of the most damaging states a human can exist in. In On Free Will, Augustine comes to a very similar conclusion.
In his theory of moral Kant puts aside emotions and disregards human body. According to Kant rationality is the basic need of human being. Kantianism is a part of deontological ethics and is always in contrast of utilitarianism, which emphasizes the consequences. In Kant’s perspective actions are approved or disapproved in and by themselves. Peoples’ rights should never be violated, even if it brings good consequences.
In the late 18th century, German philosopher Immanuel Kant wrote extensively on the basis of morals. In his Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals¸ Kant describes the dichotomy present in humans which is a result of humans being both a rational and a natural creature. The rational portion of human pulls them towards acting morally through use of reason. At the same time, the natural aspect of human beings acts as a counterweight, pulling people towards their natural inclinations, especially self-interest. The strength of this counterweight seems massive when a look is taken at human history.
The psychoanalytic lens is a literary criticism which builds on the Freudian theories of psychology. This theory argues that human behavior is the result of the interactions among three component parts of the mind: the id, ego, and superego. Id is defined as the impulsive and unconscious part of our psyche which responds directly and immediately to the instincts (3). Ego considers social realities and norms, etiquette and rules in deciding how to behave (3) and finally the foundation that ties the two is Super-Ego which aims for perfection. It comprises that part of the personality, mainly unconscious which includes the individual 's ego ideals, spiritual goals, and the conscience that criticises and prohibits ones drives, fantasies, feelings, and actions (3).
Kant was a German philosopher who lived from 1724- 1804, which was a lot later then Confucius. Kant claimed that moral requirements; respect, are based on a standard of rationality Kent’s moral philosophy is based around the categorical imperative, which is a a way of evaluating motivations for action. Kant said that the moral law must be a reason for acting which is equally obligatory on all individuals, regardless of what they want. Kant refers to this as “objective.” Although, of course, people do not always follow the moral laws because there are other factors which affect a persons judgment to which Kent calls “subjective.” To clarify Kent is saying that although we don 't always want to obey the moral law applies us certain obligations which are shown as imperatives, “statement of obligation. It tells you what you ought to
Through these formulas come the idea of imperfect and perfect duties. A perfect duty is moral truth that must be followed at all times, while an imperfect duty is one that should be followed some of the time depending on the circumstance. Kant expresses that we have perfect duties to respect other’s freedoms and we have a perfect duty to tell the truth. The AHA uses these two duties in their discussions on teaching and the shared values of historians. First off, the AHA states that presenting multiple perspectives on history are parts of the truths of history, therefore according to Kant we have a perfect duty to truth and presenting multiple perspectives.
In his writings, Kant discusses the limits of one’s limits on acquiring knowledge and self-reason. He distinguished between the themes of appearance and reality, which during the Enlightenment period, were very common, yet controversial. One specific idea Kant had was that time and space are just merely appearances- they are independent of any object that any person can relate to. This concept of intangible theories, is referred to as “transcendental idealism.” In the Fourth Paralogism, Kant refutes idealism in his statement: “I understand by the transcendental idealism of all appearances [Erscheinungen] the doctrine that they are all together to be regarded as mere representations and not as things in themselves… and accordingly that space and time are only sensible forms of our intuition…” (qtd from the Guyer & Wood translation, Kant