Determinism is the belief that each occasion has a specific cause that gets it going precisely as it does. As indicated by Sartre, there is no human nature which furnishes us with an outside wellspring of determination and quality. In the event that existence truly goes before pith, there are no clarifying things away by reference to a settled and given human nature. As it were, there is no determinism, man is free, and man is freedom. Nothing outside of us can determine what we are and what we are useful for; we must do it without anyone else 's help, from within.
Name: Instructor: Course: Date: Title: Philosophy is an important aspect of learning. It is a process that seeks to explain existing relationships to persons involved in each other and to the entire world at large. It is that desire to comprehend the vital truths concerning ones’ surroundings and themselves. Philosophy has been explained by different philosophers such as Rene Descartes and David Hume among others in different theories. This paper focuses on Rene Descartes and David Hume on their concepts of philosophy and the theories they used to equip us with these fundamental knowledges.
According to Descartes, there should exist a common and single concept because every human has innate idea at their birth. However, Locke asserts that there is no such thing. Instead, Locke suggests new concept on this issue. Locke claims that there are simple idea and complex idea, which are differed through the way they are gained. Simple idea is an idea that is attained through sensory experiences, and complex idea is a combination of simple ideas that is constructed in our
Friedrich Nietzsche a German philosopher was one of them. His style of writing looked like it did not question Kant directly at first look, but when one reads it further Nietzsche has critiqued the foundation of Kant’s theory of morality and faith in clear and concise paragraphs (Perry, p. 685). This paper highlights Immanuel Kant’s theory of reason to support the period of Enlightenment, which will be critiqued by Friedrich Nietzsche’s who would counter- enlightenment by challenging the foundations of Kant’s theory of reason through self- realization. As Nietzsche believes that intelligence is internalized resentment towards oneself, and reflects positivity, in reality, values of strength and laughter. According to me, Nietzsche’s arguments against Kantian universal reason stand strong with his ideology of will to
According to Hard Determinism, every action is determined by external force. No one acts freely because no one has the ability to control their actions. Based on the materialist theory of hard determinism, universe is the combination of physical entity like atom and actions are the result of the combination of external force and the nature of laws. In determinist view, every action is determined by the external force plus the laws of nature, so there is a possibility to predict what will happen next. Moreover, hard determinism follows the theory of casual determinism that all actions are the consequences of past events plus the laws of nature.
As Pecorino (2000) defined it, “existentialism is a philosophical movement or tendency, emphasizing individual existence, freedom, and choice that influenced many diverse writers in the 19th and 20th centuries”. From the definition, it can be said that it is a view that all humans should determine their own meaning in life, and therefore try to make rational decisions in spite of existing in an irrational universe. The central point of the idea is the question of human existence, and the feeling that there is no purpose or explanation at the innermost of existence. It further holds that there is no God or any other superior force, and that the only means to opposed this nonexistence is by willingly accepting existence. The following paragraphs
Firstly, Immanuel Kant, born in 1724 and deceased in 1804, was German philosopher who strongly influenced modern philosophy. One of his most famous works is the Critique of Pure Reason which was first published in 1781 (“Immanuel Kant: Metaphysics”). As a philosopher, he believed in the TAG meaning he agreed that “logic, science and ethics presupposed the existence of God” (Martin 17). The combination of all of Immanuel Kant’s philosophy created the transcendental idealism which included the following. He believed that “our knowledge springs from two fundamental sources of our soul; the first receives representations (receptivity of impressions), the second is the power of knowing an object by these representations (spontaneity of concepts)”
Immanuel Kant's Philosophy, Critique of Pure Reason, demonstrates the connection between the human mind and its various faculties that contribute to the production of experience. Kant's reasoning to the production of experience truly outweighs the reasoning of production explained by David Hume in Treatise. Kant is far more detailed to the point where you would truly get a grasp of what he is say To begin with, in Immanuel Kant’s Transcendental Doctrine of Elements he discusses two concepts, space and time in relation to the mind. For example, he claims, “The effect of an object upon the faculty a representation, so far as we are affected by it, is sensation”(A 20). He is expressing that in order to experience things within the world we
Aesthetics: The study of art, beauty, and taste. Growing up it never occurred to me to question, what is art? I thought one could just look at anything and point out if it was art or not but there is actually more than that. According to two philosophers, Immanuel Kant and Arthur Schopenhauer, it is a talent that separates a person from artworks and connecting them directly to the universe using the art of genius. In Kant’s Critique of Judgement and Schopenhauer’s The World as Will and Representation, there are similarities and differences in their point of view of the role of a genius and their interpretation of what it takes to be a genius.
In the idea of an absolutely good will [one] good without any qualifying condition (of attainment of this or that end)—complete abstraction must be made from every end that has to come about as an effect…And so the end must here be conceived, not as an end to be effected, but as an independently existing end. Hence it must be conceived only negatively,