The voice of conscience acts as a moral sensor, which is triggered whenever we face an ethical behaviour and fires the alarm once the morality is breached. Utterly, It is up to our will whether to listen irresistibly to the voice that is what Kant calls it “moral predisposition” or mute it which consequently leading to immoral behaviour. The previous argument explains the moral law imposed by Kant. Furthermore, he emphasised that people are rational beings act according to their morals, he considers people as a moral agent and ought to act morally and willingly motivated by the
Different from consequentialism, people who tend to have the mind set of a deontologist believe that you should do your ethical duty, regardless of the outcome. Immanuel Kant designed ‘The Categorical Imperative’ theory which was associated with the fact that it was commanding us to practice our morals and desires in a specific way which was exercised through two rules. Kamm (2000) claims that these components were to ‘(1) treat persons as ends in themselves and (2) do not treat them as mere means’. Kamm is basically suggesting that we seek happiness of others, as that is morally right, however fulfill capacities of one’s own intellect. From following both of these we arrive at an imperative and it is categorical.
The theory of deontology states we are morally obligated to act in accordance with obvious set of principles and rules regardless of results. Deontological ethics focuses on duties, and rights. The term deontological was coined by the utilitarian philosopher Jeremy Bentham, who described it as “knowledge of what is right or proper” Bentham thought that deontology points in the direction of principle of utility. But contemporary philosophers use the term deontological to indicate a contrast with the utilitarian focus on the consequences of action. Instead of focusing on consequences, deontological ethics focus on duties and obligation: things we ought to do regardless of the consequences.
MORAL PERCEPTIONS Moral perception is a term used in ethics to denote the discernment of the morally salient qualities in particular situations. In order to understand this, we must understand what ethics is all about. Ethics, also known as moral philosophy is the branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct. It talks about what the best way for living is. It teaches us what conduct is right and wrong and under what circumstances.
In this paper I will discuss Hume 's notion of morality and compare his understanding of morality with Mill 's utilitarianism and Kant 's deontology ethics. I will dwell into the moral pillars of the Humean ethics and confer his moral principles in sentiments. furthermore, I will talk about Mill 's utilitarian ethics and contrast his notion of happiness with the role of sentiments in Hume 's understanding. on the other hand, I will contrast these two notions of morality with Kant 's deontological principle. Finally, I will contrast the role of reason in Kant 's ethics with the role of sentiments in Humean ethics.
In his famous work “The Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals” Kant tries to develop a moral philosophy which depends on fundamental concepts of reason and tries to show that while making moral choices we should use reason. Kant, as an Enlightenment philosopher, places all his confidence in reason. In the first chapter, we generally recognized that an action is moral if and only if it is performed for the sake of duty. Duty commands itself as imperative. There are two types of imperatives as hypothetical and categorical.
(Hunter, 2001, p.306) There is no exception for rational individuals in the world to escape from the law of categorical imperative. The presentation of categorical imperative is somehow like a test of morality (Hunter, 2001, p.306), rather than just a moral concept. Moral maxim is of vital necessity in the determination of morality for an action. From Kant’s view, an action can be treated as moral when it is motivated by one’s maxim, while it also suits the universal law. (Hunter, 2001, p.306) Therefore, it can be concluded that moral maxim is the standard of deciding whether an action is moral or not.
Immanuel Kant who was a moral philosopher came up with the theory of duty for the sake of duty where he states that one should do good for the sake of doing good, not because there is something to gain from it but for the will of doing good, this is not the same with human rights because human rights are there to govern people from doing what is wrong and unjust, they involve the emotional state of the person and they also have exceptions whereas Kant’s moral theory leaves no room for
Kohlberg challenged the traditional conceptions of morality. This traditional concept is the approach to understanding the relationship between moral judgment and moral behavior. There are two accepted main findings of the traditional research: (a) there is not necessary relationship between the content of moral reasoning, what people believe is right or wrong and moral; and (b) external situational demands determine behavior that is considered moral. Kohlberg holds that the behavior that conforms to conventional standards of right and wrong is not moral. According to Kohlberg, morality is a part of reasoning, not behavior.
Ethics is that part of philosophy that deals with the good and bad or the right and the wrong in human conduct. Many questions come to our mind about morality, why should I be moral? What is morality? Should I be moral? Or should morality be relative or absolute?
Philosophy 100 Steven Phan Kant, Immanuel: Grounding of Metaphysics of Moral 10-19-15 The first of Kant’s essay about metaphysics on morality, he revealed to us that it is one’s sense of duty, which makes it a moral action. He also explained what logic is as it pertains understanding the most reasonable course to take, and as well as how it can only be a pure concept as it does not derive from experiences. Taking all of this into account, in the second part of Kant’s essay, he start with the idea that there is now way to give an example of a moral action outside of it being of duty. See that humans are able to make choices, their actions can fall into two categories of why they do them, according to Kant. The first category is called the hypothetical imperative, and it’s when the rational reasoning behind the course of action is clear and for one’s own goal.
The theory of right and wrong characteristics or good and bad behaviors is concerned with morality; its role can shape an individual’s personality which can affect his or her call of action. It is only natural that we should have some kind of sense of duty and physical forces from our experiences that make us have moral laws. It’s an aspect of humanity which helps them make rational decisions and it also serves as guidance for mere goodness. Our existence defines who we are as an individual because of our values that help us see past our wrongdoing and helps improve our future. This can be seen in Sophocles’ story of “Antigone,” Antigone’s character portrays a strong individual who is loyal and values her family more than the society.