Children whose parents undertake the following behaviours are providing valuable, if unintentional benefits for child’s language development, the use of a special register called child directed speech (CDS), when talking to children - adults simplify and clarify their speech, by paying attention to what their children are trying to say, expanding or recasting their child’s utterances to correct grammatical errors, reading and speaking to them, labelling things in the environment and encouraging children to watch programs with an emphasis on learning new words. Children acquire language in stimulating and interesting
Introduction Acquiring a language is a phenomenal feat only human can do. Whichever the language people learn, they have similar social functions to accomplish. And children are considered to successfully acquire a language of their environment. This essay will discuss some of the interesting topics from the course materials and present some possible modification, as well as related research findings from second language acquisition research. Looking at Prosodic Feature: Natural Process The way children process the input from the environment around them was one of the questions that should be answered in my academic interest; therefore, it was interesting for me that children resort to prosodic features of the language when they first distinguish languages of surrounding environment, and the finding was new to me because I didn't know the process children acquire to segment the langauge.
As everyone knows, there is a close connection between cognitive development and language development. Vygotsky believed that as children develop language, they actively build a symbol system, which helps them to understand the world (Close, 2010). He viewed language as developing the cognitive of children. Vygotsky’s theory views the important effect that an adult has on the development of language and it describes the importance of Zone of Proximal Development which refers to tasks that are difficult for children to master alone but that can be master with assistance from other people. The assistance is known as scaffolding.
In some cases, socialisation may be even more important than formal study for furthering your child’s language development. In such situations, code-switching also plays as an important factor for social relationships as it can become integral to your child’s self-expression. For instance, your child will quickly learn to recognise social situations and people with whom they can code switch with, and those they cannot. Your child will be more likely to code-switch with other bilinguals, using the language that their listener knows best—kind of like
Introduction Second language listening comprehension is a complex process, crucial in the development of second language competence. Listeners use both bottom-up processers (linguistic knowledge) and top-down processes (prior knowledge) to comprehend. Knowing the context of a listening text and the purpose for listening greatly reduces the burden of comprehension. Teachers can help students develop sound strategies for comprehension through a process approach to teaching listening. This will help students learn how to listen and develop the metacognitive knowledge and strategies crucial to success in listening comprehension.
They can form their students’ self-concepts and through this efficient cognitive functioning, foster their language learning. This feature is culture-bound and differs in different societies (as cited in Williams and Burden, 1997). Buttery and Anderson (2000) documented that parents play an active role by monitoring their children’s activities. Parents might play a more indirect role by modeling attitudes that leads to language learning achievement. Keith and Keith (1993) confirmed that involvement by parents is particularly significant in work with young children.
The forms of address, greetings, formulas, and other utterances found in the dialogues or models our students hear and the allusions to aspects of culture found in the reading represent cultural knowledge. Gestures, body movements, and distances maintained by speakers should foster cultural insights. Students’ intellectual curiosity is aroused and satisfied when they learn that there exists another mode of expression to talk about feelings, wants, needs and when they read the literature of the foreign country. For depth of cultural understanding it is necessary to see how such patterns function in relation to each other and to appreciate their place within the cultural system. If language learners are to communicate at a personal level with individuals from other cultural backgrounds, they will need not only to understand the cultural influences at work in the behaviour of others, but also to recognize the profound influence patterns of their own culture exert over their thoughts, their activities, and their forms of linguistic
Strict guidance is necessary, structure needs to be provided at large and teachers should be affirm in what they convey. Adolescents need a sensitive availability from their teachers, encouraging the children to be responsible, setting realistic limits and acknowledge their insecurities during this period full of change (Lewis & Narramore, 1990). Adolescents in this first phase may have had little or no exposure to a second language at all. Therefore maintaining the first language as a reference system in the learning of the second language may be necessity. Classes are therefore best taught in the mother tongue, with little active use of the target language.
In the process of second language learning, learners tend to use the ways that they favour to learn the second language. It is believed that L2 learners learn better through using those learning strategies they have produced for themselves. Even in a classroom, during the practice of reading, writing, speaking or listening skills, if the teaching method does not refer to the interest of students, they become unconcerned. In order to make learning easier and more interesting, it is necessary to present new materials and techniques in accordance with the participants’ language learning