During the late 1800s, European immigrants began to migrate into the United States. Many of them came for economic, religious, and social opportunities. Majority of the immigrants came to look for work in America’s expanding industrial firms. Upon arrival most of the immigrants settled into major cities that had job opportunities that required no-skill to low-skill, which were found in industrial firms like New York and Chicago. Unfortunately, majority of the immigrants were poor and by the 1910 they began to overcrowd the cities, primarily the slum areas.
In the mid-1800s, Ireland was a nation which depended on agriculture. The Irish were among the poorest people in the world, relying on crops to feed their families. The Great Famine, or An Gorta Mór, commenced with the potato failure in 1845. It lasted for six years and caused the deaths of over one million men, women and children. It also led to a huge increase in emigration with two million people fleeing the country in the search of both food and a life free from corruption.
Statistical analysis of these factors has revealed that the railroad was a factor leading to settlement, with at least one half of urban growth in the Midwest in the late 1800s coming directly from railroad systems (Atack et al., 2010). As previously mentioned, poor soils and precipitation rates of the middle American continent prevented rich agricultural production found further east. This meant that farms would have to be larger to produce an equal amount of food and dense populations would benefit from supplementation from eastern production. By default, this meant the western development needed to originate in eastern cities and matriculate through towns and railroads to eventually reach western settlers (Wand and Latham, 2001).
The Impact of Emily Dickinson on American Culture Emily Dickinson once wrote, “The Soul selects her own Society - Then - shuts the Door -To her divine Majority - Present no more- ”. Dickinson was born in the 1880s during America’s rapidly changing society. According to Matina S. Horner (1990), “New inventions enabled farmers to grow more crops while employing fewer laborers, and young people flocked from the countryside to booming cities, where advances in mechanization aided the development of factories.” (p. 19). Since the United States was industrializing quickly, many immigrants were enticed to flee their homeland for new opportunities.
The Scotch-Irish people were one of the numerous immigrants who looked for shelter and alleviation in America. The Scotch-Irish appeared in the mid-seventeenth century when the English government, on edge to dominate Ireland, removed Lowland Scots as pilgrims to the province of Ulster in northern Ireland. For around a century the Scotch-Irish squeezed out a living in Ireland, yet in the early piece of the eighteenth century their monetary condition endured a progression of grievous inversions. As a result, a flood of maybe five thousand Scotch-Irish moved to America in 1717. Before the end of the eighteenth century, four more influxes of Scotch-Irish withdrew Ireland for America and a few hundred thousand Ulstermen settled in about each area of the English provinces.
The total amount of immigrants during the 1920s was 4,295,510. These immigrants came from Germany, Britain, Ireland, Italy, Australia, France, Poland, and Canada Some people from other countries moved her because of our nation 's title “the Golden Land” or to live the “American Dream.” Here in America we have many opportunities such as land, jobs, money, crops, learning abilities, and of course freedom. “ In Europe, there had been a disease which killed nearly two million people and had caused famine. ”(nguyeh 1)
1608-1749 – Early Immigration Years Heavy taxation and German inheritance laws of primogeniture, a system of inheritance in which land passes exclusively to the eldest son prompted countless young German males to leave their native German states and immigrate to different countries, such as America. These individuals were driven by ideas of landownership and prosperity with marginal government interference. The first German immigrants to the British American Colonies occurred at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607 nearly seventy-six years prior to the founding of the first permanent German settlement at Germantown, Pennsylvania in 1683. After which German immigration to Pennsylvania grew precipitously.
The Irish immigrants were a large percentage of London in the nineteenth century and the greatest flow of their migration came in the early to mid-nineteenth century. This was due to the agricultural problems, the increase of demand for Irish labor in the Industrial revolution, and the bad conditions in Ireland due to the Great Famine (Clive). London was the largest city in the world and the Irish made up the largest immigrant group during this time. In 1841, the first census to record those living in the city was taken and 4% of the population was the Irish. They grew again in 1851 due to the Great Famine.
The immigrants’ countries of origin have changed over time. “The greatest migration of Jews to the United States occurred around the end of the nineteenth century and was simultaneous with the great” (textbook, 305). Jews left Germany because of restrictive laws, economic hardship, and the failure of movements. They saw Americans as an opportunity for a place of economic and social gathering. “Ethnic and racial identification can be positive or negative.
Irish Immigrants in America Before the outbreak of the dread Irish Potato Famine, the people of Ireland had been a relatively small demographic in America. The immigration of Irish males had increased in the 1820 's, due to an abundance of jobs created by the building of the Erie Canal and other canal, road, or railroad projects, but when the famine struck, entire families flocked in droves to the United States. “Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free," they heard our country call, and they came by the thousands, hoping to find, if nothing else, a decent existence. Between the years 1820 and 1930, an estimated 4.5 million Irish came to America.
What are some of the hardships Americans in the early 1800s faced when traveling? One hardship they faced was having their entire food supply exhausted. Most of the families had to kill their oxen for food and leave their wagons, which resulted in the travelers walking on foot. Unfortunately, a lot of the people ended up dying of starvation anyway. Another hardship they faced was not being able to bury those that had died in coffins.
In the 1800’s many Irish Immigrants were in search of jobs in America. In Ireland jobs were becoming very scarce because there were many problems in their economy. It was important for individuals to support their families because of this occurrence. In Ireland there was an outbreak of the “Potato Blight” a disease caused by eating contaminated potatoes. Because of this many individual lost jobs this cause the “Great Potato Famine.
Racial Bias in the United States The United States is home of many diverse ethnicities that come here to live the American Dream. Although they are legal immigrants, white americans still treat them as a minority group. There is still racial bias here that is causing tensions between ethnic groups despite all the efforts to stop it.
Immigration is a delicate subject, but regardless of personal opinions, it is an important part of US history. Without immigration, countries would not have been formed, and now cultures would not have been implemented into existing ones. Modern immigration, which stems from older forms of immigration, is more complex, with new terms and regulations to become a US citizen. Some foreigners are unable to meet said terms, and struggle with the process of entering the US, so they attempt to enter the country without the permission of the US government. A reported seven hundred thousand enter the US each year, according to Colorado Alliance for Immigration Reform.