Immigration In Norway Case Study

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Immigration in Norway is a more recent phenomenon than in the other Nordic countries except perhaps Finland. Until the 1970’s the immigrants were primarily from the western world or Nordics. During the 1970’s Norway experienced an inflow of labor migrants from such countries as Pakistan and Turkey. Those where primarily single young men who took employment in the booming industry sector. From the 1980’s there was an increased influx of refugees and family reunification immigrants. In later years especially since 2000 the eastwards expansion of the EU there has been a growing influx of people from Eastern Europe (Brøgger and Wiberg, 2006).
In his extensive review of studies exploring the topic of immigrant entrepreneurship, Vinogradov (2008)
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Krogstad also concludes that immigrant businesses have the largest chance to succeed, in markets where their products, knowledge and behavior matches the consumption patterns of the majority population either through similarity or as something exotic. Another interesting finding by Krogstad (2001) is that immigrant owned shops and cafes in Norway are important meeting places for ethnic minorities and also one of the few places where natives and immigrants may interact socially. Finally Krogstad (2002 quoted in Vinogradov, 2008) finds that self exploitation e.g. by working very long hours is a typical feature of immigrant businesses. Speaking about ethnic resources Krogstad (2002, quoted in Vinogradov, 2008) finds that some groups rely more on ethnic resources than others. In Norway, immigrants from Tunisia, Marocco, Palestine and Greece have been found to avoid reliance on co-ethnics while e.g. Pakistanis perceive their ethnic group as an important source of resources needed for business venturing. Krogstad (2006 quoted in Hidle, 2007) also concludes that ethnic entrepreneurship allows immigrants to use resources that they would not be able to use…show more content…
He finds that education attainment in the country of origin is positively related with self employment in the destination country - Norway. Reasons for this may be due to the fact that self employment requires intensive learning, the fact that international degrees may not be recognized, thus pushing immigrants into self employment. Also better educated immigrants may gain additional trust from the natives, which is important when establishing a business outside the ethnic economy. Also, Vinogradov finds that home country culture is a good predictor of self employment levels in the destination country. The conclusion of the second paper by Vinogradov is that businesses started

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