The mechanism behind an allergic reaction consists of two phases. The first phase involves the initial sensitization, where an antigen is encountered by antigen presenting cells (APC) and processed for presentation to naïve T cells. The antigen can be introduced through various routes, including the gastrointestinal tract (food allergens) and lung epithelial (pollens). Animal studies have suggested an additional route through skin contact (REF), and this is supported by the previously mentioned studies regarding atopic dermatitis as a risk factor for food allergy development, However, direct evidence of this occurring in humans is limited to a number of case studies lacking supporting immunological data (REF). Accumulating evidence suggests
Interestingly, secondary back skin infection can be found in many animals that were initially infected at mucosal sites indicating a self-infection was efficient to grow tumors in nude mice. A carcinoma was developed in a female outbred nude mouse skin site A cutaneous lesion grew at the foreleg of one infected animal at 9.5 months post-infection (Fig. 2A). Histological analysis showed that this lesion had progressed to malignancy (Fig. 2B).
A skin cell gun uses the patients own skin cells mixed with a water base solution. This is very interesting because it remind me of a paint gun. The mixture is sprayed onto the burned area instead of using a graft. Bachai, S. (2014, April 09) To me this is extremely helpful for second and third degree burns because it seems easier to apply than a graft, much less maintenance, no rejection because it is your own stem cells, and the healing time is much faster. 5.
In this lab when looking at cells, we observed the salinity and osmolarity of the cell when placed in the environment. With the different concentrations of NaCl, we are able to see how different environment can constrain an organism and see the wide range of responses to regulate in cell’s osmolarity. The cells we studied was sheep red blood cells (erythrocyte), because they are the most studied membrane system and therefore used as ideal membrane to study the relationship between water and the passing of the different concentration of NaCl across the membrane. The purpose of the experiment was to observe the cell and infer which direction of the flow of the water due to the cell volume change. This lets us to notice what in the red blood cell was able to permeable across the cell membrane, since they were placed in different osmolality solutions we are able observe the tonicity of the cell’s behavior.
(Schlegel & Pardee, 1986) Furthermore, their research suggests that a process, called indirect immunofluorescence, was able to produce phosphoproteins. DNA replication was also said to have stopped in the synthesis phase cells before caffeine had the ability to start premature chromosome condensation. Pardee and Schlegel further explained how caffeine has the ability to reverse the restricting of DNA synthesis, in which results from the research with two drugs called hydroxyurea and aphidicolin. They used these two drugs to relate to the essentialness of DNA synthesis inhibition to premature chromosome condensation. (Schlegel & Pardee, 1986) In
Now that testing has been done the providers know what type of medication would be best to start with. Two out of four medications could possibly be used to attack the infection. If the patient were to take Ciprofloxacin the mechanism of action would be to inhibit relaxation of DNA; inhibit DNA gyrase in
After finding the Rf values of the four known compounds, solvent 1 (99.5% ethyl acetate/0.5% acetic acid) was chosen, due to the wide range of results, for the remaining experiments. Ibuprofen, our known tablet, gave a similar Rf value to our previous results for Ibuprofen. For Anadin extra, there were three compounds identified as Caffeine, Paracetamol and Aspirin as the Rf values of the drug were close to the values of these three compounds in the first part of the practical. For both of these known drugs, the Rf values acquired were close to my predictions before the experiment. For the unknown powder, we obtained Rf values of 0.52 and 0.76 so we believe that the unknown powder contains Aspirin and Ibuprofen.
Narrowing down the unknown microorganism to gram negative, this approach was helpful to take the next step, in some bacteria the cell wall is surrounded by cell enveloped called capsule, also some bacteria make capsule when faced in a harsh environment to protect them. A capsule stain was preform, the results were analyzed and observed. An additional procedure that was done, was the Fast Actin staining which helps to see if the bacteria contains Mycolic acid in their cell walls, which determines the structure and function of the cytoskeleton in living and fixed cells (Shah). As expected for both E.coli and K. Pnenumia the fast acting results were negative. For both E.coli and K. Pnenumia the Oxidase test was positive a reaction was obtained.
These substrates include: glucose, palmitate, amino acids and propionate. The aim was to make sure that any type of blood spot card would be able to show the chemical structure of the chemicals on them. Therefore, four different sampling cards were chosen: FTA DMKA-A, FTA DMPK-B, VWR 237 and Protein Saver 903. These cards supposedly have different structures, so it would be possible to see which one was more successful with each of the chemicals named above. In order to be able to use these sampling cards, the instruments such as Harris Uni-core 3mm cutters were necessary.
chinesis. A construct of R751::Tn4351 (the physical map of R751::Tn4351 and restriction sites are shown in fig. 7) was selected for introduction into F. chinesis to discover if the introduction and insertion of the vector R751 and the transposition of T4351 into the F. chinesis chromosome by a triparental mating occurred. One parent was E. coli GJ342 which carried a helper plasmid, the second parent was E. coli HB101 which contained R751::Tn4351 and the third parent was the F. chinesis target strain. 189 colonies were isolated on LB agar plates which in passage in fresh media were able to grow in 200µgml-1 erythromycin.